Editions  of  the  Bible

                     In the present article we understand by editions of the
                     Bible the printed reproductions of its original texts. We
                     are not concerned with copies of the versions of the
                     Bible, whether printed or written; nor do we purpose to
                     consider the manuscript copies of the original text. The
                     written reproductions are described under CODEX
                     ALEXANDRINUS and similar articles. See also
                     BIBLICAL CRITICISM in the latter part of which article
                     will be found an explanation of the critical nomenclature
                     of Bible codices and the symbols by which they are
                     denoted. The translations of the Bible will be treated
                     under the title VERSIONS OF THE BIBLE. Since the
                     original text of the Bible was written in Hebrew or Greek
                     (the original Aramaic portions can for the present
                     purpose be considered as coincident with the Hebrew), our study of its printed
                     reproductions naturally considers first the editions of the Hebrew text, and
                     secondly those of the Greek.

                               I. EDITIONS OF THE HEBREW TEXT OF THE BIBLE

                     Roughly speaking, there are three classes of editions of the Hebrew text:

                        1.The so-called Incunabula (Lat. cunabula, pl., "cradle")
                        2.The common editions
                        3.The critical editions.

                     The reader will see that this division has an historical as well as a logical basis.

                     1. THE INCUNABULA

                     Technically speaking, the Incunabula are the editions issued before the year
                     1500. From our present critical standpoint, they are very defective; but since they
                     represent manuscripts now lost, they are important even for critical purposes.
                     The following publications constitute the main body of the Incunabula:

                        1.The quarto edition of the Hebrew Psalter with the commentary of Rabbi
                          David Kimchi, printed in 1477, probably at Bologna. Vowels and accents
                          are wanting, except in the first four psalms. The volume is noted for its
                          omissions, abbreviations, and general lack of accuracy.
                        2.The folio edition of the Pentateuch, with vowels and accents, containing
                          the Targum of Onkelos and the commentary of Rabbi Samuel Jarchi,
                          printed at Bologna, 1482. This publication is much more perfect and
                          correct than the foregoing.
                        3.The so-called Earlier Prophets, i. e. the Books of Josue, Judges, Samuel,
                          and Kings, printed in 1488 at Soncino, near Cremona, in Italy.
                        4.The folio edition of the Later Prophets, i. e. Isaias, Jeremias, Ezechiel,
                          and the twelve Minor Prophets, printed soon after the preceding
                          publication, without accents and vowels, but interlined with the text of
                          Kimchi's commentary.
                        5.The Psalter and the Megilloth, or "Rolls", i. e. the Canticle of Canticles,
                          Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther, printed in the same year
                          as the preceding publication, at Soncino and Casale, in Italy, in a quarto
                        6.Three folio volumes containing the Hagiographa with several rabbinic
                          commentaries, printed at Naples in 1487; the text is accompanied by the
                          vowels, but not by the accents.
                        7.A complete Hebrew Bible, in folio, printed in 1488 at Soncino, without any
                          commentary. Its text, accompanied by both vowels and accents, is based
                          partly on the previously printed portions of the Hebrew Bible, partly on
                          Hebrew manuscripts, but it lacks accuracy.
                        8.A folio containing the Hebrew and Chaldee Pentateuch with Rashi's
                          commentary, printed in 1490 in Isola del Liri.
                        9.A most accurate and highly esteemed quarto edition of the Pentateuch,
                          printed at Lisbon in 1491.
                       10.A second complete edition of the Hebrew text, in quarto, printed in 1494
                          at Brescia. The editor calls himself Gerson ben Mose of Soncino. The
                          text, which is accompanied by its vowels and accents, exhibits many
                          peculiar readings not found in any other edition. The type is small and
                          indistinct, the proofreading most slovenly; in a word, the edition is utterly
                          defective. Luther based his translation on it.
                       11.The foregoing text is repeated in an octave edition printed at Pisa in 1494.
                       12.A folio edition of the Hebrew Bible, printed on parchment, bears no
                          indication of its date or place of printing; it probably appeared in
                          Constantinople about 1500.
                       13.To these may be added Seb. Münster's Hebrew-Latin Bible, printed in folio
                          at Basle, 1534 and 1546, since its text is based on that of the 1488 and
                          1494 editions. Here also belong, for the same reason, the "Biblia
                          Rabbinica Bombergiana", first edition (see below), the editions of R.
                          Stephanus (1539-44, 1546), and the manual editions of Bomberg.

                     2. COMMON EDITIONS

                     By these we understand editions of the Bible reproduced either from manuscripts
                     or previous printed editions without the aid of critical apparatus and the
                     application of critical principles. While the editions of the Hebrew text thus far
                     enumerated owed their publication to Jewish enterprise, those that follow were, at
                     least in part, due to Christian scholarship. For practical purposes we may divide
                     the common editions into two classes: (1) those not depending on other printed
                     editions (independent editions); (2) those depending, at least partly, on a
                     previously printed text (dependent, or mixed, editions).

                     (1) Independent editions

                     This class of editions comprises two principal ones: (a) the "Biblia Polyglotta
                     Complutensia"; (b) the "Biblia Rabbinica Bombergiana", second edition. Here we
                     can give only a summary of their principal features.

                     (a) "Biblia Polyglotta Complutensia"

                                         In the year 1502, Cardinal Ximenes engaged several
                                         learned scholars to prepare the edition of a polyglot
                                         Bible called variously after the name of its
                                         ecclesiastical patron and the place of its publication
                                         (Alcalá, in Lat. Complutum). The editors of the
                                         Hebrew text were Jewish converts. Ancient
                                         manuscripts, estimated at the value of 4000 florins,
                                         and probably also the best extant printed copies of
                                         the Hebrew text, were placed at their disposal. Thus
                                         the cardinal's scholars produced a text quite different
                                         from the other printed texts of his time. They marked
                                         the vowels, but not the accents. The Polyglot was
                                         finished in 1517, but was published only in 1520 or
                                         1522, according to Gregory (Canon and Text of the
                                         New Testament, New York, 1907). The pure form of
                     its text was only once reprinted in the so-called "Biblia Polyglotta Vatabli", or
                     "Polyglotta Sanctandreana'', or again, "Bertram's Polyglot" (Heidelberg, 1586,
                     1599, 1616).

                     (b) "Biblia Rabbinica Bombergiana", second edition

                     Daniel Bomberg, of Antwerp, who had established a printing-office for Hebrew and
                     rabbinic literature in Venice, published, in 1518, two important editions of the
                     Hebrew text: (a) an edition for Christian readers, in quarto, which was reprinted in
                     1521, 1525-28, 1533, 1544; (b) an edition for Jewish readers, edited by the
                     Jewish convert Felix Pratensis. It contained the Targumim, the Massorah, and
                     many Jewish commentaries, but did not satisfy the Jews. Hence Bomberg found
                     it advisable to publish another edition under the editorship of R. Jacob ben
                     Chayim, the most celebrated Jewish scholar of his time. He brought the text into
                     closer agreement with the Massorah, and added several more Jewish
                     commentaries. The work appeared in Venice, in four folio volumes, 1525-26, and
                     was justly regarded as the first Massoretic Bible. It won the approbation of both
                     Jewish and Christian scholars, so that it had to be republished in 1547-49, and
                     1568; the- last edition was brought out under the direction of John de Gara. In
                     spite of the great merits of the work, it is not wholly free from defects; Ben
                     Chayim paid too much attention to the Massorah and too little to reliable old
                     manuscripts. The principal codex he followed fell afterwards into the hands of de
                     Rossi, who testifies that it is quite defective and has not been carefully edited.
                     Chayim printed it without correcting its most glaring mistakes.

                     The subsequent editions were influenced principally by Ben Chayim's text, and
                     only secondarily by the Complutensian Polyglot. Thus the former text was
                     repeated by Bragadin (Venice, 1617), and, in a slightly modified form, by
                     Justiniani (Venice, 1551, 1552, 1563, 1573), the editors of Geneva (1618), John
                     de Gara (Venice, 1566, 1568, 1582), Plantin (Antwerp, 1566), Hartmann
                     (Frankfort, 1595, 1598), the editors of Wittenberg (1586, 1587), and Tores
                     (Amsterdam, 1705). Long before the last publication appeared, John Buxtorf
                     edited first the Hebrew text in manual form (Basle, 1611), then Chayim's rabbinic
                     Bible in four folio volumes (Basle, 1618, 1619). Though he corrected some of Ben
                     Chayim's mistakes, he allowed others to remain and even introduced some new
                     ones. He ought not to have regulated the vocalization of the Targumim according
                     to the vowels in the Chaldee fragments of the Bible, and it was at least
                     inconsistent to change the Massorah according to the Hebrew text, seeing that
                     Ben Chayim, whose text he professed to follow, had modified the Hebrew text
                     according to the Massorah.

                     (2) Dependent, or mixed, editions

                     In the editions thus far mentioned the text of one or the other of the two principal
                     forms of the Hebrew Bible was reproduced without any notable change. We have
                     now to consider the attempts made to correct the text either according to the
                     reading of other editions or according to that of ancient manuscripts.

                     (a) Texts Corrected according to Printed Texts

                     The first mixed text of the Hebrew Bible appeared in the Antwerp Polyglot
                     (1569-72); the same text was repeated in the Paris Polyglot (1629-45), in the
                     London Polyglot (1657), in that of Reineccius (Leipzig, 1750-51), the smaller
                     Plantin editions (Antwerp, 1580, 1582; Burgos, 1581; Leyden, 1613), the manual
                     edition of Reineccius (Leipzig, 1725, 1739, 1756), and in the Vienna Bible (1743).
                     The beautifully printed Bible of Hutter (Hamburg, 1588) presents a peculiarly
                     mixed text. Here may be added the names of a few editors who published a
                     Hebrew text without vowels and without pretence to critical accuracy: Plantin
                     (Antwerp, 1573, 8vo and 12mo; Leyden, 1595, 16mo; 1610, 12mo; Hanau, 1610,
                     24mo); Menasse ben Israel (Amsterdam, 1630, 1639, 8vo); Leusden (1694, 8vo);
                     Maresius (1701, 8vo); Jablonsky (Berlin, 1711, 24mo); Forster (Oxford, 1750,

                     (b) Texts Corrected according to Codices and Printed Texts

                     The mixture of Chayim's text with the Complutensian could not give permanent
                     satisfaction. Every comparison of the mixed text with that of any good
                     manuscript brought to light many discrepancies and suggested the idea that a
                     better Hebrew text might be obtained by the help of good codices. The first
                     attempt to publish a Hebrew text thus corrected was made by John Leusden with
                     the cooperation of the printer Jos. Athias (Amsterdam, 1661, 1667). The editor
                     revised Chayim's text according to the readings of two codices, one of which was
                     said to be about 900 years old. This edition, printed by Athias, was revised by
                     George Nissel according to the readings of Hutter's Bible (Leyden, 1662). Nissel
                     makes no pretence of having collated any codices, so that his work is noted for
                     its scarcity rather than its critical value. Clodius, too, endeavoured to correct
                     Athias's text according to earlier editions, but was not always successful
                     (Frankfort, 1677, 1692, 1716). Jablonsky corrected the second edition of Athias
                     according to the readings of several codices and of the better previous editions,
                     paying special attention to the vowels and accents (Berlin, 1699, 1712); his first
                     edition is commonly regarded as being one of the best. Van der Hooght
                     corrected the second edition of Athias according to the Massorah and the
                     previously printed editions (Amsterdam and Utrecht, 1705); his attention to the
                     smallest details and the printer's care account for the general favour with which
                     the edition was received. A still more perfect reprint of the edition was published
                     by Props (Amsterdam, 1724). Simonis, too, published correct and cheap reprints
                     of Van der Hooght's Bible. Opitz corrected the edition of Athias according to the
                     readings of seventeen of the best previous editions and of several manuscripts
                     (Kiel, 1709; Züllichau, 1741). He supervised the proof in person, and even the
                     type was remarkable for its size and clearness, so that the edition was
                     considered the most accurate extant. J. H. Michaelis edited the first Hebrew text
                     with variants (Halle, 1720). He based it on the text of Jablonsky which he
                     compared with twenty-four earlier editions and with five manuscripts preserved in
                     Erfurt. The more important variants he added at the bottom of the page. It has
                     been found that the comparison was made rather superficially as far as the
                     printed editions were concerned, and there is no good reason for supposing that
                     more care was taken in the comparison of the manuscript text. Still, the edition
                     remains valuable, because it is the first of its kind, and some of its variants
                     deserve attention even to-day. The Oratorian Father Houbigant tried to produce a
                     text far superior to the commonly received one. Taking Van der Hooght's text for
                     his basis, he added his own corrections and conjectures in critical notes. His
                     apparatus consisted of a number of manuscripts, the ancient versions, and the
                     Hebrew context. The precipitancy of his inferences and the rashness of his
                     conjectures did much to create a prejudice against his method, though the merit
                     of his work has been duly appreciated by scholars. His "Notæ Criticæ" were
                     printed in separate form in Frankfort (1777), after the full edition had appeared in
                     Paris (1753).

                     Here may be mentioned the work of the Italian Jew, Salomo Norzi. He began in
                     the early years of the seventeenth century to compare Bomberg's text with the
                     best of the printed editions, with a number of good manuscripts of both Bible and
                     Massorah, with the Biblical citations found in the Talmud, the Midrashim, and in
                     other rabbinic writings, and with the critical annotations of the more notable
                     Jewish commentators; the results of his long study he summarized in a
                     Massoretico-critical commentary intended to accompany the text of the Hebrew
                     Bible, which had been rather scantily corrected. The title of the work was to be
                     "Repairer of the Breach" (Is., lviii, 12), but the author died before he could publish
                     his book. Nearly a century later, a Jewish physician named Raphael Chayim
                     Italia had Norzi's work printed at his own expense under the title "Offering of the
                     Gift" (Mantua, 1742-44). Among Christian scholars it appears to have remained
                     unnoticed until Bruns and Dresde drew attention to it. In spite of his best
                     intentions, Norzi at times rather corrupts than corrects the Hebrew text, because
                     he prefers the readings of the Massorah to those of the manuscripts.

                     3. CRITICAL EDITIONS

                     The editions thus far enumerated can hardly be called critical, since their editors
                     either lacked the necessary apparatus or did not consider it prudent to correct
                     the received Hebrew text according to the full light of their textual information.
                     Later on, two classes of scholars published really critical editions of the Hebrew
                     text; some endeavoured to restore critically the most correct Massoretic text
                     obtainable; others tried to find the most accurate pre-Massoretic text.

                     (1) Critical Editions of the Massoretic Text

                     In order to restore the correct Massoretic text it was necessary first to collect the
                     apparatus. About the middle of the eighteenth century this need was felt very
                     keenly by Benjamin Kennicott, a canon of Christ Church, Oxford, who
                     determined to remedy the evil. Beginning in 1759, he collated either in person or
                     through others as many as 615 Hebrew manuscripts, 52 printed editions, and the
                     Talmud, continuing this preparation until the year 1773. Then he began the
                     printing of the work (Vetus Testam. Hebr. cum var. lectionibus, 2 volumes,
                     Oxford, 1776-80) based on Van der Hooght's Hebrew text as edited by Simonis.
                     The variants, with their respective sources, were indicated below the text. In the
                     introductory dissertation of the second volume the author gives the history of his
                     enterprise and justifies its methods. He found this necessary because, after the
                     appearance of the first volume, his critics had charged him with lack of care and
                     discernment in the choice of the manuscripts used, of the variants noticed, and
                     in the treatment of the Massorah.

                     Bernardo de Rossi, professor at Parma, tried to construct an apparatus that
                     should not be open to the exceptions taken against Kennicott's work. The
                     material on which de Rossi worked exceeded that of Kennicott by 731
                     manuscripts, 300 printed editions, and several ancient versions. In his work
                     (Variæ lectiones Vet. Testam., 4 volumes, Parma, 1784-88) and its subsequent
                     supplement (Supplementa ad varias s. text. lectiones, 1798) he noted the more
                     important variants, gave a brief appreciation of their respective sources and their
                     values, and paid due attention to the Massorah. He follows Van der Hooght's text
                     as his basis, but considers it known, and so does not print it. All of de Rossi's
                     critics are at one in admiring the laboriousness of his work, but they deny that its
                     importance bears any proportion to the labour it implies. Perhaps the author
                     himself, in his "Dissertatio præliminaris" to vol. IV, gives a fairer opinion of his
                     work than his critics do. It can hardly be denied that de Rossi at least showed
                     what can be done by a study of the manuscripts and of the old editions for the
                     correction of the received Hebrew text.

                     The apparatus of the textual, or lower, criticism of the Old Testament text (see
                     BIBLICAL CRITICISM) is not limited to the works of Kennicott and de Rossi; it
                     comprises also the above-mentioned work of Salomo Norzi, re-edited in Vienna,
                     1813; the writings of Wolf ben Simson Heidenhaim; Frensdorff's "Ochla W'
                     Ochlah" (1864), and "Massora Magna" (Hanover, 1876); the prophetic "Codex of
                     St. Petersburg", dating back to 916, phototyped by Strack in 1876; all the
                     recently discovered or recently studied codices and fragments, together with the
                     works of the ancient Jewish grammarians and lexicographers.

                     But even with these means at their command, the editors of the Hebrew text did
                     not at once produce an edition that could be called satisfactory from a critical
                     point of view. The editions of Döderlein-Meisner (Leipzig, 1793) and Jahn (Vienna,
                     1807) only popularized the variants of Kennicott and de Rossi without utilizing
                     them properly. The edition published under the name of Hahn and prefaced by
                     Rosenmüller (Leipzig, 1834) is anything but critical. The stereotype editions of
                     Hahn (Leipzig, 1839) and Theile (Leipzig, 1849) remained for many years the
                     best manual texts extant. More recently the apparatus has been used to better
                     advantage in the edition of Ginsburg (The New Massoretico-Critical Text of the
                     Hebrew Bible, 1894) and in that of Baer and Delitzsch. The last-named appeared
                     in single books, beginning with the year 1861. The Books of Exodus, Leviticus,
                     Numbers, and Deuteronomy are still wanting; both editors are dead, so that their
                     work will have to be completed by other hands.

                     (2) Critical Editions of the Pre-Massoretic Text

                     The editors whose work we have thus far noticed endeavoured to restore as far as
                     possible the text of the Massorah. However valuable such an edition may be in
                     itself, it cannot pretend to be the last word which textual criticism has to say
                     concerning the Hebrew text of the Old Testament. After all, the Massoretic text
                     attained to its fixed form in the early centuries of the Christian Era; before that
                     period there were found many text-forms which differed considerably from the
                     Massoretic, and which nevertheless may represent the original text with fair
                     accuracy. The most ancient and reliable witness for the pre-Massoretic text-form
                     of the Hebrew Bible is found in the Septuagint. But it is practically certain that,
                     even at the time of the Septuagint, the original text had suffered considerable
                     corruptions; these can be corrected only by comparing parallel passages of the
                     context, or again by conjectural criticism; a critical edition of this kind
                     presupposes, therefore, a critical edition of the Septuagint text.

                     Various attempts have been made to restore the pre-Massoretic text of single
                     books of the Old Testament: thus Olshausen worked at the reconstruction of the
                     Book of Genesis (Beiträge zur Kritik des überlieferten Textes im Buche Genesis,
                     1870); Wellhausen (Text der Bücher Samuelis, 1871), Driver (Notes on the
                     Hebrew Text of the Books of Samuel, 1890), and Klostermann (Die Bücher
                     Samuelis und der Könige, 1887) at the correction of the Books of Samuel; Cornill
                     at the correction of the Book of Ezechiel (Das Buch des Propheten Ezechiel,
                     1886). To these might be added various other publications; e. g., several recent
                     commentaries, some of the works published by Bickell, etc. But all these works
                     concern only part of the Old Testament text. "The Sacred Books of the Old
                     Testament", edited by Paul Haupt (see CRITICISM, BIBLICAL, s. v. Textual), is a
                     series intended to embrace the whole Hebrew text, though the value of its
                     criticism is in many instances questionable; Kittel's "Biblia Hebraica" (Leipzig,
                     1905), too, deserves a mention among the critical editions which attempt to
                     restore the pre-Massoretic Hebrew text.

                               II. EDITIONS OF THE GREEK TEXT OF THE BIBLE

                     Before speaking of the Greek text of the New Testament, we shall have to give a
                     brief account of the editions of the Greek books of the Old Testament. They
                     appear partly in separate editions, partly in conjunction with the Septuagint.

                     1. SEPARATE EDITIONS

                     The principal separate editions of the deuterocanonical books appeared at
                     Antwerp, 1566 (Plantin), 1584, and with Latin text taken from Ximenes' Polyglot,
                     1612; at Frankfort, 1694; Halle, 1749, 1766 (Kircher); Leipzig, 1757 (Reineccius),
                     1804 (Augusti), 1837 (Apel), 1871 (Fritzsche); Oxford, 1805; London, 1871
                     (Greek and English); Frankfort and Leipzig, 1691 (partial edition); Book of Tobias,
                     Franeker, 1591 (Drusius), and Freiburg, 1870 (Reusch); Book of Judith,
                     Würzburg, 1887 (Scholz, Commentar); Book of Wisdom, 1586 (Holkoth's
                     "Prælectiones" edited by Ryterus); Coburg, 1601 (Faber); Venice, 1827 (Greek,
                     Latin, and Armenian); Freiburg, 1858 (Reusch); Oxford, 1881 (Deane);
                     Ecclesiasticus, 1551, '55, '68, '70, '89, '90 (Drusius), 1804 (Bretschneider);
                     Books of Machabees, Franeker, 1600 (Drusius); I Mach., Helmstädt, 1784


                     The history of these editions of the deuterocanonical books of the Old Testament
                     is connected with that of the Septuagint editions. The reader will find full
                     information on this question in the article SEPTUAGINT.

                     The newly invented art of printing had flourished for more than half a century
                     before an attempt was made to publish an edition of the Greek New Testament.
                     The Canticles, Magnificat, and Benedictus were printed at Milan, 1481; at
                     Venice, 1486 and 1496, as an appendix to the Greek Psalter; John, i, 1, to vi, 58,
                     appeared in Venice, 1495 and 1504, together with the poems of St. Gregory
                     Nazianzen; the beginning of the Fourth Gospel, John, i, 1-14, was published at
                     Venice, 1495, and at Tübingen, 1511. Not that the reading public of that age did
                     not feel interested in the other parts of the New Testament; but it did not show
                     any desire for the Greek text of the Bible. After the beginning of the sixteenth
                     century the world's attitude with regard to the Greek text of the New Testament
                     changed considerably. Not counting the publication of codices, mere stereotype
                     reprints, or the issue of parts of the Testament, the number of editions of the
                     complete Greek text has been estimated at about 550; in other words, since the
                     beginning of the sixteenth century, every year has witnessed the publication of,
                     roughly speaking, two new editions of the complete Greek text. For our present
                     purpose, we may consider the principal editions under the four headings of the
                     Complutensian, the Erasmian, the Received, and the Critical text.

                     (1) The Complutensian Text

                     It was the Archbishop of Toledo, Cardinal Ximenes de Cisneros, who began at
                     Alcalá, in 1502, the preparation of the edition of the Old Testament in Hebrew,
                     Greek, and Latin, and of the New Testament in Greek and Latin. It has been thus
                     far impossible to ascertain what codices served as the basis of the work called
                     the Complutensian Polyglot. Though Leo X sent from the Vatican Library some
                     manuscripts venerandoe vetustatis for the use of the scholars engaged in the
                     work at Alcalá, it is quite certain that the well-known Codex Vaticanus was not
                     among them. It appears that the Greek New Testament text of the Polyglot rests
                     on the readings of a few manuscripts only, belonging to the so-called Byzantine
                     family (see CRITICISM, BIBLICAL, s. v. Textual). The charge that the
                     Complutensian text was corrected according to the evidence of the Latin Vulgate,
                     is now generally abandoned, excepting with regard to I John, v, 7. The
                     New-Testament text is contained in the fifth or, according to other arrangements,
                     in the last of the six folios of the Polyglot; it was finished 10 Jan., 1514, and
                     though the rest of the work was ready 10 July, 1517, four months before the great
                     cardinal's death (8 Nov., 1517), it was not published until Leo X had given his
                     permission proprio motu, 22 March, 1520.

                     The Complutensian text, corrected according to certain readings of the Erasmian
                     and of that of Stephanus, was repeated in the Antwerp Polyglot published, under
                     the auspices of King Philip II, by the Spanish theologian Benedict Arias
                     Montanus and his companions, and printed by the celebrated typographer,
                     Christopher Plantin, of Antwerp, 1569-72. The Greek New Testament text occurs
                     in the fifth and in the last of the eight folios which make up the Antwerp Polyglot;
                     in the fifth it is accompanied by the Syriac text (both in Hebrew and Syriac
                     letters), its Latin version, and the Latin Vulgate; in the eighth volume, the Greek
                     text has been corrected in a few passages, and is accompanied by the
                     interlinear Latin Vulgate text. The text of the fifth volume of the Antwerp Polyglot
                     was repeated only in the fifth volume of the Paris Polyglot, 1630-33, while that of
                     the eighth volume reappears in a number of editions: Antwerp 1573-84 (four
                     editions, Christopher Plantin); Leyden, 1591-1613 (four editions, Rapheleng);
                     Paris, 1584 (Syriac, Latin, and Greek text; Prevosteau); Heidelberg, 1599, 1602
                     (Commelin); Lyons, 1599 (Vincent); Geneva, 1599; Geneva, 1609-27 (eight very
                     different editions; Pierre de la Rouière, Sam. Crispin, James Stoer); Leipzig,
                     1657 (with the interlinear version of Arias Montanus; Kirchner); Vienna, 1740
                     (edited by Debiel, published by Kaliwoda); Mainz, 1753 (edited by Goldhagen;
                     published by Varrentrapp); Liège, 1839 (Kersten). To these editions, containing
                     the Plantinian, or the modified Complutensian, text, the following may be added,
                     which represent a mixture of the text of Plantin and that of Stephanus: Cologne,
                     1592 (Amold Mylius; Greek and Latin text); Nuremberg, 1599-1600 (Hutter's
                     Polyglot, twelve languages); 1602 (the same, four languages); Amsterdam, 1615
                     (the same, Welschaert); Geneva, 1628 (Jean de Tournes; one edition gives only
                     the Greek text, another gives Beza's Latin version and a French translation).

                     (2) The Erasmian Text

                     On 17 April, 1515, the well known humanist, Beatus Rhenanus, invited
                     Desiderius Erasmus, who lived at the time in England, to edit the Greek New
                     Testament which John Froben, a celebrated printer of Basle, was anxious to
                     publish before Pope Leo X should give his permission to put forth the
                     Complutensian text printed more than a year before. Erasmus hastened to
                     Basle, and printed almost bodily the text of the manuscripts that happened to fall
                     into his hands: the Gospels according to a manuscript of Basle (Evv. 2); the
                     Book of Acts and the Epistles according to another manuscript of Basle (Act. 2);
                     the Apocalypse according to a manuscript named after Reuchlin "Codex
                     Reuchlini" (Apoc. 1). He made a few corrections after superficially collating some
                     other Basle manuscripts, Evv. 1 among the rest. Since Reuchlin's manuscript did
                     not contain the end of the Apocalypse, Erasmus translated Apoc., xxii, 16b-21,
                     from the Vulgate. The printing began in Sept., 1515, and the whole New
                     Testament text was finished in the beginning of March, 1516. Under these
                     circumstances satisfactory work could hardly be expected; Erasmus himself, in
                     a letter to Pirkheimer, confesses that the first New Testament edition is
                     "præcipitatum verius quam editum". In 1519 appeared the second Erasmus
                     edition, in which the text of the first was almost entirely repeated, though several
                     hundred mistakes were corrected. Luther followed this edition in his German
                     translation of the New Testament. Urged by the importunities of his critics,
                     Erasmus admitted into his third edition (1522) the passage I John, v, 7, according
                     to the reading of the Codex Montfort. (Evv. 61). In his fourth edition (1527) he
                     changed his text, especially in Apoc., in several passages according to the
                     readings of the Complutensian Polyglot; in the fifth edition (1535) he repeated the
                     text of the fourth with very few changes.

                     The Erasmian text was frequently reprinted: Venice, 1518; Hagenau, 1521;
                     Basle, 1524, 31, etc.; Strasburg, 1524; Antwerp, 1571, etc.; Paris, 1546 and
                     1549 (Robertus Stephanus introduced corrections from the Complutensian
                     Polyglot); in his third edition, R. Stephanus repeats the fifth Erasmian with
                     variants from fifteen manuscripts and the Complutensian Polyglot (Paris, 1550).
                     This edition is called Regia, and is the basis of the English Authorized Version
                     (1611). Stephanus's fourth edition (Geneva, 1551) adds the Latin to the Greek
                     text, the latter of which is for the first time divided into verses, a contrivance
                     which was introduced into the Latin Vulgate in 1555, and then became general.
                     The last edition of R. Stephanus was reprinted with slight modifications a great
                     number of times; its principal repetitions were those supervised by Theodore
                     Beta (Geneva, 1565, 1582, 1589, 1598 in folio; 1565, 1567, 1580, 1590, 1604 in
                     octavo) and the brothers Bonaventure and Abraham Elzevir (Leyden, 1624, 1633,
                     1641; Amsterdam, 1656, 1662, 1670, 1678). In the preface of the second Elzevir
                     edition (Leyden, 1633) we read the words: "Textum ergo habes nunc ab omnibus
                     receptum." Hence this Elzevir text became known as the textus receptus, or the
                     Received Text.

                     (3) The Received Text

                     From what has been said it follows that the Received Text is that of the second
                     Elzevir edition, which is practically identical with the text of Theodore Beza, or
                     the fourth edition of Robertus Stephanus corrected in about one hundred and fifty
                     passages according to the readings of the Codex Claromontanus, the Codex
                     Cantabrigiensis, the Latin, Syriac, and Arabic versions, and certain critical notes
                     of Henry Stephanus. In its turn, the fourth edition of Robertus Stephanus is
                     almost identical with the fifth Erasmian edition which exhibits the text of five
                     rather recent manuscripts corrected in about a hundred passages according to
                     the reading of the Complutensian Polyglot. Still, it can hardly be denied that the
                     readings peculiar to the text can be traced at least as far back as the fourth
                     century. For about a century the Received Text held undisputed sway; its
                     editions numbered about one hundred and seventy, some of the more important
                     being the following:

                          The fifth volume of Brian Walton's "Biblia Polyglotta" (London, 1657)
                          contains the New Testament in Greek, Latin, Syria, Arabic, Ethiopia; a
                          learned apparatus is added in the sixth volume.
                          John Fell edited the text anonymously (Oxford, 1675) with variants
                          collected "ex plus centime mss. codicils et antiques versionibus".
                          John Mill reprinted the text of Stephanus, 1550, together with valuable
                          prolegomena and a critical apparatus (Oxford, 1707), and L. Kuster
                          published an enlarged and corrected edition of Mill's work (Amsterdam,
                          Not to speak of Richard Bentley's "Proposals for Printing", published in
                          1720, we must mention Wetstein's edition, the prolegomena to which
                          appeared anonymously in 1730, and were followed by the body of the
                          work in two folios: (Amsterdam, 1751-1752) with an apparatus collected
                          from codices, versions, readings of the Fathers, printed editions, and
                          works of Biblical scholars. He also laid down principles for the use of
                          variants, but did not put them into practice consistently enough.
                          Principles advocated by Wetstein were more faithfully followed in W.
                          Bowyer's edition of the Greek New Testament (London, 1763).
                          When the foregoing scholars had collected an almost unmanageable
                          number of variants, John Albert Bengel endeavoured to simplify their use
                          by dividing them into two families, an Asiatic and an African; besides, he
                          constructed a Greek text based on the readings of previous editions,
                          excepting that of the Apocalypse, which was based also on the readings
                          of manuscripts (Tübingen, 1734).
                          This edition was enlarged add amended by Burck (Tübingen 1763).

                     (4) The Critical Text

                     In the last paragraph we have enumerated a list of editions of the Greek New
                     Testament which contain, besides the text, a more or less complete apparatus
                     for the critical reconstruction of the true reading. We shall now mention a number
                     of editions in which such a reconstruction was attempted.

                     (1) Griesbach developed Bengel's method of grouping the variants into a formal
                     system. He admitted three textual recensions: the Occidental, the Alexandrian
                     (or Oriental), and the Constantinopolitan (or Byzantine). The first two he derived
                     from the middle of the second century, and the third he considered as a mixture
                     of the two, belonging to the fourth century, though subsequently modified. After
                     laving down his principles of textual criticism, he tried to reconstruct the text best
                     known in the ancient Church of both East and West. In 1774 he published the
                     text of the synoptic Gospels; in 1796-1806, the text of the New Testament,
                     called "Editio secunda"; in 1827 David Schulz added the first volume of a third
                     edition. Griesbach is not always faithful to his principles, being too much under
                     the sway of the Received Text; moreover, he did not sufficiently utilize the
                     codices most important for his purpose. His text has been followed by Schott,
                     Knapp, Tittmann, Hahn, and Theile.

                     (2) It suffices to mention the editions of Mace (London, 1729), Harwood (London,
                     1776), Matthaei (Riga, 1782-1788), Alter (Vienna, 1786), and Scholz (Leipzig,
                     1830-1836); the last named scholar (a Catholic, and professor of exegesis in the
                     University of Bonn) reduced Griesbach's first two recensions to one,
                     distinguishing it only from the Constantinopolitan textform, which he derived from
                     the more correct copies circulating in Asia Minor, Syria, and Greece during the
                     first centuries. Scholz himself had industriously collected manuscripts in the
                     East. The labours of Hug and Eichhorn may also be mentioned briefly. The
                     former substituted his so-called Common Edition, and the latter the uncorrected
                     text of Asia and Africa, for Griesbach's Occidental class. Both Hug and Eichhorn
                     assign the Alexandrian text-form to Hesychius, and the Byzantine to Lucian;
                     finally, Hug assigns to the labours of Origen in his old age a fourth text-form
                     identical with a middle class favoured by Griesbach and Eichhorn. Rinck (1830)
                     divided the Occidental manuscripts into African and Latin, both of which are
                     surpassed in purity by the Oriental.

                     (3) Carl Lachmann was the first critic who tried to reconstruct a New Testament
                     text independent of the Received. Believing that the autograph text could not be
                     found, he endeavoured to restore the text-form most common in the Oriental
                     Church during the course of the fourth century. He published his small stereotype
                     edition in 1831 (Berlin), and his large Latin-Greek text in 1842-50 (Berlin); this
                     latter is accompanied by P. Buttmann's list of authorities for the Greek readings.
                     Though Lachmann's text is preferable to the Received, his apparatus and the use
                     he made of it are hardly satisfactory in the light of our present-day methods.

                     (4) Among the editors of the New Testament text, Tischendorf deserves a place
                     of honour. During the thirty years which he devoted exclusively to textual studies,
                     he published twenty or twenty-one editions of the Greek Testament; the most
                     noteworthy among them belong to one or another of the following five recensions:

                          In 1841 (Leipzig) he issued an edition in which he surpassed even
                          Lachmann in his departure from the Received Text; the ancient
                          manuscripts, the early versions, and the citations of the Fathers were
                          regarded as the highest authorities in the selection of his reading. In 1842
                          Tischendorf published in Paris an edition destined for the French
                          Protestants (Didot), and in the same year and place, at the instance of
                          the Abbé I.M. Jager, another for the French Catholics, which he dedicated
                          to Archbishop Affre. In this he received the Greek readings most in
                          keeping with the Latin Vulgate.
                          The second recension consists of four stereotype editions (12mo,
                          1842-59) containing the Greek text brought into agreement with the Latin
                          Tischendorf's third recension is represented by his fourth (Lipsiensis
                          secunda, 1849; Winter), his fifth (stereotype; Leipzig, 1850, Tauchnitz),
                          and his sixth edition (with corrected Latin Vulgate and Luther's translation;
                          Leipzig, 1854, Avenarius and Mendelssohn). A separate print of the Greek
                          text of this last edition (1855) constitutes the first of Tischendorf's
                          so-called "academic" editions. In the seventh reprint of the academic
                          edition, as well as in the third of Tauchnitz's stereotype text, the readings
                          were changed according to Tischendorf's fifth recension.
                          The fourth recension is found in Tischendorf's "Editio Septima Critica
                          Maior" (Leipzig, 1856-59; Winter). The work contains valuable
                          prolegomena and a detailed critical apparatus.
                          Tischendorf's fifth recension is found in his "Editio Octava Critica Maior"
                          (Leipzig, 1864-72, Giesecke and Devrient). In his first recension
                          Tischendorf is further removed than Lachmann from the Received Text; in
                          his second he favours the Latin Vulgate; in the third, and still more in the
                          fourth, he returns to the readings of the Received Text of Elzevir and
                          Griesbach; but in the fifth he again follows the principles of Lachmann and
                          favours the readings of his first recension rather than those of his third and
                          fourth. Tischendorf will always occupy a high rank among the editors of
                          the Greek text; but he is rather a student of the text than a textual critic.
                          The "Prolegomena" to the eighth edition had to be supplied by C.R.
                          Gregory on account of the great editor's untimely death (7 Dec., 1874).
                          Gregory published these "Prolegomena" in three instalments (Leipzig,
                          1884, 1890, 1894), giving the reader a most satisfactory and complete
                          summary of the information necessary or useful for the better
                          understanding of the Greek text and its apparatus.

                     (5) The discrepancy between the text of Scholz's edition (Leipzig, 1830-36) and
                     the readings of the early documents stimulated Tregelles to study the textual
                     questions more thoroughly in order to relieve the existing uncertainty. The
                     favourable reception of his "Book of Revelation in Greek . . . with a, new English
                     Version" published with a "Prospectus of a Critical Edition of the Greek New
                     Testament, now in Preparation" encouraged him to continue the arduous course
                     of studies he had begun. After collating all the more important manuscripts which
                     were to be found in England, he visited the libraries of Rome, Florence, Modena,
                     Venice, Munich, Basle, Paris, Hamburg, Dresden, Wolfenbüttel, and Utrecht for
                     an accurate study of their respective codices. It has been noted that when the
                     results of Tregelles differ from those of Tischendorf, the former are usually
                     correct. He was enabled to publish the Gospels of St. Matthew and St. Mark in
                     1857; those of St. Luke and St. John in 1861; the Acts and the Catholic Epistles
                     in 1865; the Pauline Epistles in 1869-70. While engaged on the last chapters of
                     the Apocalypse, he had a stroke of apoplexy, so that this part had to be finished
                     by the hand of a friend (1872). Seven years later, Hort and Streane added
                     "Prolegomena" to the work of Tregelles. A reprint of the text without its critical
                     apparatus appeared in 1887. The character of the work is well described by its
                     title, "The Greek New Testament, Edited from Ancient Authorities, with their
                     Various Readings in full, and the Latin Version of Jerome" (London, 1857-79).

                     (6) The textual labours of Tregelles and Tischendorf were, to a certain extent,
                     overshadowed by the work achieved by the two eminent Cambridge scholars,
                     Brook Foss Westcott and Fenton John Anthony Hort. Like their predecessors,
                     they acknowledged and followed the principles of Lachmann; but they differed
                     from Lachmann as well as from Tischendorf and Tregelles in utilizing and
                     systematizing the genealogical grouping of the ancient readings, thus connecting
                     their labours with the views of Bengel and Criesbach. They distinguished four
                     branches of textual tradition.

                          The Western has a tendency to paraphrase the text and to interpolate it
                          from parallel passages and other sources. It is found mainly in Codex D,
                          the old Latin Version, and partly in Cureton's Syriac manuscript.
                          The Alexandrian is purer than the Western, but contains changes of a
                          grammatical character. It is found in the oldest uncial codices, except in
                          B (and part of N), a number of cursive manuscripts, and the Egyptian
                          The Syrian is a mixture of all the other texts, or at least it contains some
                          of the characteristics of all the others. It is found in the later uncials, and
                          in most of the cursive manuscripts and versions.
                          The neutral text comes nearest to the original text, being almost identical
                          with it. Its pure form is found nowhere, but the readings of N and some of
                          the oldest uncials, especially of B, give us the nearest approach to it.

                     As to the value of the several classes of readings, Hort believes that most of the
                     Western and Alexandrian, and all the Syrian must be rejected; these latter he
                     finds nowhere before the middle of the third century. All the necessary
                     explanations have been collected in a volume accompanying Westcott and Hort's
                     "New Testament in the Original Greek" (Cambridge and London, 1881). The
                     volume contains an introduction (324 pages) and an appendix (173 pages). The
                     introduction treats of the necessity of Textual New-Testament Criticism (pp.
                     4-18), of its various methods (19-72), of the application of its principles to the
                     restoration of the New-Testament text (73-287), and finally of the character, the
                     aim, and the arrangement of the new edition (288-324). The appendix contains
                     critical comments on difficult passages (pp. 1-140), notes on certain orthographic
                     and grammatical discrepancies between the ancient codices (pp. 141-173), and
                     finally a complete list of the Old-Testament passages employed in the New (pp.
                     174-188). The volume containing the text of Westcott and Hort's edition was
                     printed also separately in the year of the first appearance. In 1885 (1887, etc.)
                     the text appeared separately in a volume of smaller size, and in 1895-96 both
                     volumes of the original work were published anew in their larger form.

                     (7) Westcott and Hort's Greek New Testament, though hailed with delight by a
                     great number of textual critics, did not meet with unchallenged praise. Among
                     the dissenters were Godet, Wunderlich, Dobschütz, Jülicher, Bousset, and
                     Burgon (The Revision Revised; The Quarterly Review, 1881-82; 2nd edit., London,
                     1885). Of these, some object to Westcott and Hort's method, others to their
                     appreciation of Codex B, others to their attitude towards the so-called Western
                     readings, others, finally, uphold the claims of the Received Text. In the third and
                     fourth editions of his "Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament",
                     F. H. Scrivener writes against the views of Tischendorf, Treffelles, and
                     Westcott-Hort; he favours the readings of the later manuscripts in the
                     reconstruction of the Greek New-Testament text, and advocates the return to a
                     text-form similar to the Received Text. Among his various publications we may
                     notice "The New Testament in the Original Greek, together with the Variations
                     Adopted in the Revised Version'' (New Edition, London, 1894) and his various
                     collations of texts (Twenty Manuscripts of the Gospels, London, 1853; Collation
                     of Codex Sinaiticus with the Received Text, Cambridge and London, 1863, 1867).
                     Here may be mentioned also "The Greek Testament with a critically revised text,
                     a digest of various readings, marginal references to verbal and idiomatic usage,
                     prolegomena, and a critical and exegetical commentary'' edited by Henry Alford,
                     afterwards Dean of Canterbury (London, 1849-1857; sixth edition, 1871).
                     Tischendorf was of opinion that Alford's revision of the text was not satisfactory.
                     Again "The New Testament in the Original Greek, with Notes and Introduction''
                     (London, 1856-60; newly edited with index, 1867), by Christopher Wordsworth,
                     Canon of Westminster, is a mixture of the texts of Griesbach, Lachmann,
                     Tischendorf, and Elzevir. Finally, in connexion with the Revised Edition,
                     Professor C. Palmer, of Oxford, published "The Greek Testament, with the
                     Readings adopted by the Revisers of the Authorised Version" (Oxford, 1881;
                     Clarendon Press).

                     (8) Among the chief works dealing with the textual restoration of the Greek New
                     Testament which have appeared in recent years, we must mention the edition of
                     B. Weiss: Part 1, Acts, Catholic Epistles, Apocalypse (Leipzig, 1894, Hinrichs);
                     Part II, The Pauline Epistles together with Hebr. (1896); Part III, The Gospels
                     (1900). A manual edition of this text appeared 1902-05, in three volumes; the
                     mistakes of the first issue were corrected as far as possible. Richard Francis
                     Weymouth edited in a handy form "The Resultant Greek Testament" (London,
                     1886, Elliot Stock; cheap edition, 1892 and 1896; third edition, 1905); in it he
                     gives us the text on which the majority of modern editors are agreed, together
                     with all the readings of Stephens (1550), Lachmann, Tregelles, Lightfoot, Ellicott,
                     Alford, Weiss, the Bale Edition (1880), Westcott-Hort, and the Revision
                     Committee, with an introduction by J. J. St. Perowne. The editor may not give the
                     reader anything of his own, but he furnishes an amount of textual erudition which
                     the Bible student can hardly afford to neglect. Dr. E. Nestle has edited a "Novum
                     Testamentum Græce cum apparatu critico", (Stuttgart, 1898, 1899, 1901, 1903,
                     1904, 1906) based on the four most prominent of the recent texts: Tischendorf,
                     Westcott-Hort, Weymouth, and Weiss. All the variants of the four editions,
                     excepting as to minor details, are noted, so that the reader obtains at a glance
                     the results of the foremost textual criticism on any given text. It would be difficult
                     indeed to contrive a handier and more complete edition of the Greek text than
                     this of Nestle's, which seems likely to become the Received Text of the twentieth

                     (9) It is, therefore, all the more to be regretted that Nestle's text cannot be
                     recommended to the general Catholic reader. Not to mention other shortcomings,
                     it places John, v, 4, and vii, 53-viii, 11, among the foot-notes, and represents
                     Mark, xvi, 9-20, together with an alternative ending of the Second Gospel, as a
                     "Western non-interpolation", suggesting that it is an ancient Eastern interpolation
                     of the sacred text. The rules of the new Index enumerate with precision those
                     classes of Catholics who may read texts like that of Nestle; others must content
                     themselves with one or another of the following editions: P.A. Gratz reedited the
                     Complutensian text (Tübingen, 1821; Füs); L. Van Ess published a combination
                     of the Complutensian and the Erasmian text (Tübingen, 1827; Füs); Jaumann
                     adheres closely to the edition of Tittmann (Munich, 1832; Lindauer); we have
                     already mentioned Tischendorf's text prepared for Catholic readers under the
                     influence of I.M. Jager (Paris, 1847, 1851, 1859); Reithmayr produced a
                     combination of this latter edition and that of Lachmann (Munich, 1847; Ratisbon,
                     1851); V. Loch derived his text, as far as possible, from the Codex Vaticanus
                     (Ratisbon, 1862); Tauchnitz published, with the approbation of the proper
                     ecclesiastical authority of Dresden, Theile's text almost without change, together
                     with the text of the Latin Vulgate; Brandseheid edited the Greek text and the
                     Latin Vulgate of the New Testament in such a way as to bring the former as
                     much as possible into agreement with the latter (Freiburg, 1901, etc.); finally, M.
                     Hetzenauer published his "Novum Testamentum Græce" (Innsbruck, 1904,
                     Wagner), reproducing in separate form the Greek text of his Greek-Latin edition
                     (1896-98). He is more independent of the Vulgate text than Brandscheid, and he
                     adds the more important variants in the margin, or in footnotes, or again in an
                     appendix critica.

                     (10) It must not be imagined that the textual criticism of the New Testament has
                     arrived at a state that can be regarded as final. Without doing injustice to the
                     splendid results attained by the labours of the scholars enumerated in this
                     article, it must be confessed that the condition of the textual criticism of the New
                     Testament is more uncertain to-day than it was twenty years ago. The
                     uncertainty springs mainly from the doubts of our critics as to the real value of
                     the Western readings. Professor Blass may exaggerate the importance of these
                     Western readings, at least with regard to the Book of Acts, when he considers
                     them as the transcript of the inspired writer's first or rough copy, while he
                     identifies the Eastern with the copy actually sent out to Antioch. Even if students
                     repudiate Blass's view, they will be influenced by the conservative work of H. von
                     Soden, which is now (1908) in course of publication (Die Schriften des NT. in
                     ihrer ältesten erreichbaren Textgestalt hergestellt auf Grund ihrer Textgeschichte,
                     Berlin, Duncker). The writer distinguishes three groups of readings: most
                     manuscripts present the Antiochene text, which is probably the recension of
                     Lucian, called K; about fifty witnesses represent the Egyptian text, probably the
                     recension of Hesychius, denoted by H; the third group, denoted by I, is the
                     Vulgate of Palestine. An investigation of the original form and the development of
                     each of these recensions gives rise to a number of subdivisions. The problem for
                     the textual critic is to discover the archetype which lies in each case at the
                     bottom of the three recensions. If von Soden's method should eventually prove to
                     be false, it may at least contribute to the improvement of our Greek
                     New-Testament editions.

                     SWETE; An Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek (Cambridge, 1902), 171 sqq.; Urtext und
                     Uebersetzungen der Bibel (Leipzig, 1897) 64 sqq.; NESTLE in HAST., Dictionary of the Bible (New
                     York, 1903), IV, 437 sqq.; KAULEN in Kirchenlex., II. 596 sq.; MASCH, Bibliotheca sacra (Halle,
                     1778), I, 427-436

                     Several sources have been mentioned in the course of the article. We might refer the reader for a
                     list of the other principal authors to KAULEN-WELTE-HUNDHAUSEN in Kirchenlex., s. v.
                     Bibelausgaben, or to VON GEBHARDT in Realencyclopädie; LE LONG, Bibliotheca sacra, ed.
                     MASCH (Halle, 1778), I, 187 sqq.; ROSENMÜLLER, Handbuch für die Literatur der biblischen Kritik
                     und Exegese (Göttingen, l797), I, 278 sqq.; HUG, Einleitung in die Schriften des Neuen Testaments
                     (4th ed., Stuttgart, 1847), I, 268 sqq.; TREGELLES, An Account of the Printed Text of the Greek
                     New Testament (London, 1854); HORNE AND TREGELLES, An Introduction to the Textual Criticism
                     of the New Testament (London, 1856), 116 sqq., 648 sqq.; O'CALLAGHAN, A List Of Editions of the
                     Holy Scriptures and parts thereof printed in America previous to 1860 (Albany, 1861); REUSS,
                     Bibliotheca Novi Testamenti Groeci (Brunswick, 1872); HALL, A Critical Bibliography of the Greek
                     New Testament as Published in America (Philadelphia, 1883); HUNDHAUSEN, Editionen des
                     neutestamentlichen Textes und Schriften zur neutestamentlichen Textkritik seit Lachmann in Literar
                     Handweiser (1882), 321 sqq.; SCHAFF, A Companion to the Greek Testament and the English
                     Version (3rd ed., New York, 1888), 497 sqq.; RÜGG, Die neutestamentliche Textkritik seit Lachmann
                     (Zürich, 1892); LUCAS, Textual Criticism and the Acts of the Apostles in Dublin Review (1894), 30
                     sqq.; BLASS, Acta Apostolorum etc. (Göttingen, 1895); ID., Acta Apostolorum, etc. (Leipzig, 1896);
                     Id., Evangelium sec. Johannem (Leipzig, 1902); GREGORY, Textkritik des Neuen Testamentes
                     (Leipzig, 1902); GREGORY, Canon and Text of the N.T. (New York, 1907); VON SODEN, Dir
                     Schriften des NT. in ihrer ältesten erreichbaren Textgestalt etc. (Berlin, 1902, 1906).

                     A. J. MAAS
                     Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter
                     Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ

                                       The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V
                                    Copyright © 1909 by Robert Appleton Company
                                    Online Edition Copyright © 1999 by Kevin Knight
                                     Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909. Remy Lafort, Censor
                                   Imprimatur. +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York

The Catholic Encyclopedia:  newadvent.org