Versions  of  the  Bible

                                               Synopsis

                          GREEK: Septuagint; Aquila; Theodotion; Symmachus; other versions.
                          VERSIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT: Vetus Itala or Old Latin; Egyptian
                          or Coptic (Bohairic, Sahidic, Akhmimic, and Fayûmic, i.e. Middle
                          Egyptian or Bashmuric); Ethiopic and Amharic (Falasha, Galla); Gothic;
                          Georgian or Grusian; Syriac; Slavic (Old Slavonic, Russian, Ruthenian,
                          Polish, Czech or Bohemian, Slovak, Serbian or Illyrian, Croation, Bosnian,
                          Dalmatian); Arabic; Armenian.
                          VERSIONS FROM THE HEBREW: Chaldaic; Syriac (Peschitto); Arabic
                          (Carshuni); Persian; Samaritan Pentateuch; Vulgate; other Latin versions.
                          HEBREW VERSIONS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT
                          VERSIONS FROM MIXED SOURCES: Italian; Spanish; Basque;
                          Portuguese; French; German; Dutch and Flemish; Scandinavian (Danish,
                          Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic); Finnish (Estonian, Laplandish);
                          Hungarian; Celtic (Irish, Scottish, Breton or Armoric, Welsh or Cymric).
                          MISCELLANEOUS: Aleutian; Aniwa; Aneitumese; Battak; Benga;
                          Bengali; Chinese; Gipsy or Romany; Hindu; Hindustani; Japanese;
                          Javanese; Mexican; Modern Greek.
                          ENGLISH VERSIONS

                                                GREEK

                     (1) The Septuagint

                     The Septuagint, or Alexandrine, Version, the first and foremost translation of the
                     Hebrew Bible, was made in the third and second centuries B.C. An account of its
                     origin, recensions, and its historical importance has been given above (see
                     SEPTUAGINT VERSION). It is still the official text of the Greek Church. Among
                     the Latins its authority was explicitly recognized by the Fathers of the Council of
                     Trent, in compliance with whose wishes Sixtus V, in 1587, published an edition
                     of the Vatican Codex. This, with three others, the Complutensian, Aldine, and
                     Grabian, are the leading representative editions available.

                     (2) Version of Aquila

                     In the second century, to meet the demands of both Jews and Christians, three
                     other Greek versions of the Old Testament were produced, though they never
                     took the place of the Septuagint. Only fragmentary remains of them are
                     preserved, chiefly from Origen's "Hexapla" (q.v.). The first and the most original is
                     that of Aquila, a native of Sinope in Pontus, a proselyte to Judaism, and
                     according to St. Jerome, a pupil of Rabbi Akiba who taught in the Palestinian
                     schools, 95-135. Aquila, taking the Hebrew as he found it, proves in his rendering
                     to be "a slave to the letter". When his version appeared, about 130, its rabbinical
                     character won approval from the Jews but distrust from the Christians. It was the
                     favoured among the Greek-speaking Jews of the fourth and fifth centuries, and in
                     the sixth was sanctioned by Justinian for public reading in the synagogues. Then
                     it rapidly fell into disuse and disappeared. Origen and St. Jerome found it of value
                     in the study of the original text and of the methods of Jewish interpretation in the
                     early Christian years.

                     (3) Version of Theodotion

                     Another Greek version practically contemporaneous with Aquila's was made by
                     Theodotion, probably an Ephesian Jew or Ebionite. It held a middle place among
                     the ancient Greek translations, preserving the character of a free revision of the
                     Septuagint, the omissions and erroneous renderings of which it corrected. It also
                     showed parts not appearing in the original, as the deuterocanonical fragments of
                     Daniel, the postscript of Job, the Book of Baruch, but not the Book of Esther. It
                     was not approved by the Jews but was favourably received by the Christians.
                     Origin gave it a place in his "Hexapla" and from it supplied parts missing in the
                     Septuagint. St. Irenæus used its text of Daniel, which was afterwards adopted in
                     the Church.

                     (4) Version of Symmachus

                     This appeared at the close of the second century. Its author was an Ebionite of
                     Jewish or Samaritan origin. Giving the sense rather than the letter of the Hebrew,
                     he turned its idioms into good Greek, used paraphrases, and translated
                     independently of the earlier versions. His work, though finished and intelligible to
                     readers ignorant of Hebrew, sometimes failed to give the real meaning of the
                     original. It was but little used by the Jews. St. Jerome admired its literary
                     qualities and was often guided by it in preparing the Vulgate.

                     (5) Other Greek Versions

                     In limited portions of the Hexapla, Origen made use of other partial Greek
                     versions which he designated as the Quinta, Sexta and Septima, from the
                     numerical position of the columns assigned them in his work, but their authors
                     are unknown and very little can be said of the merits of the versions.

                                    VERSIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT

                     (1) The "Vetus Itala" or Old Latin

                     The origin of the oldest Latin version or versions is involved in much uncertainty.
                     Some contend that there was but one primitive version, others show with strong
                     arguments that there were several. It is generally admitted that long before the
                     end of the second century, Latin translations, though rude and defective, of
                     Tobias, I and II Machabees, and Baruch were in use and that towards the close
                     of the same period, there existed at least one version of the whole Bible, based
                     on the Septuagint and on Greek manuscripts of the New Testament. This was
                     the Vetus Itala, or Old Latin. Its New Testament is possessed complete in some
                     thirty-eight manuscripts, but its Old-Testament text has survived only in parts. As
                     it contained both the protocanonical and the deuterocanonical books and parts of
                     books of the Old Testament, it figured importantly in the history of the Biblical
                     Canon. It exercised a vast influence on the Vulgate and through it on modern
                     translations and the Church language. In the latter part of the fourth century, the
                     text of the Itala was found to have variant readings in different parts of the Church.
                     Pope Damasus therefore requested St. Jerome to undertake its revision. Guided
                     by old Greek manuscripts, he corrected its mistakes and emended such
                     translations as affected the true sense of the Gospels, and probably followed the
                     same method in revising all the books of the New Testament, which he put forth
                     at Rome about 383. In that year, working from the commonly received text of the
                     Septuagint, he made a cursory revision of the Psalter, which was used in the
                     Roman Church until the time of St. Pius V, and is still retained at St. Peter's,
                     Rome, in the Ambrosian Rite at Milan, and in the Invitatory psalm of Matins in
                     the modern Breviary. About 388, using the Hexaplar text as a basis, he revised
                     the Psalter more carefully and this recension, called the Gallican Psalter from
                     becoming current in Gaul, is now read in the Breviary and in the Vulgate. From
                     the same sources he later corrected all the Old-Testament books that he judged
                     canonical, but even in his own day all this revision, excepting the book of Job
                     was lost. The unrevised text of the greater part of the Old Latin Version continued
                     in use in the Western Church until it was supplanted by the Vulgate.

                     (2) Egyptian, or Coptic, Versions

                     The first Christians of Lower Egypt commonly used Greek, but the natives
                     generally spoke Coptic (see EGYPT, VI, COPTIC LITERATURE), which is now
                     recognized in four dialects, viz.: Bohairic, Sahidic, Akhmimic and Fayûmic
                     (Middle Egyptian). As Christian communities formed and flourished, the Bible
                     was translated into these dialects and it is generally admitted that some
                     versions, if not all, date back to the second century. That they were independent
                     translations from the Greek seems certain, and Biblical criticism has therefore
                     profited by the light they have thrown on the Septuagint and the New-Testament
                     manuscripts. Of these versions the most important are in Bohairic or Memphite,
                     the language used at Memphis and Alexandria, and the Sahidic, the language of
                     the upper Thebais. The former is entirely extant and since the eleventh or twelfth
                     century has been the standard text of the Church in Egypt. The latter exists in
                     large fragments, but little has so far been found of the others.

                     Fayûmic (Middle Egyptian) or as it has been termed Bashmuric (Bushmuric),
                     one of the Coptic dialects according to the division of Athanasius, Bishop of Cos
                     (eleventh cent.), is the name now applied to some fragmentary versions
                     published as the "Codices Basmyrici" by Zoega ("Catalogus", Rome, 1810).

                     (3) Ethiopic and Amharic Versions

                     Early in the fourth century, St. Frumentius preached the Gospel in Abyssinia and
                     there laid the foundation of the Ethiopic Church. Its version of the Scriptures
                     probably dates from the close of the following century. It undoubtedly originated
                     from the Septuagint and Greek manuscripts, but present texts do not certainly
                     represent the original version and may possibly be a later translation from the
                     Arabic or Coptic.

                     Falasha Version

                     This is an Old Testament in Geez, the sacred speech of Abyssinia, among the
                     Falasha in North Abyssinia, who follow the Jewish religion and claim to be
                     descended from the Jewish exiles of the time of Solomon.

                     Amharic Versions

                     As a language, the Amharic supplanted the Geez about 1300 and is still in use.
                     Catholic missionaries have made it the medium of their translations of portions of
                     the Scriptures, but the first Amharic Bible was completed in 1810-20 by Asselin
                     de Cherville, French consul at Cairo. A Bible Society reprint appeared in 1842,
                     and a new edition was prepared in 1875 by Krapf, aided by several Abyssinian
                     scholars.

                     Galla Version

                     A Gospel of St. Matthew in the language of the South Abyssinian Galla was
                     published by Krapf (Ankobar, 1842). A Galla New Testament in Amharic
                     characters was edited by a Bible Society in 1876; Genesis and Psalms, 1873;
                     Exodus, 1877.

                     (4) Gothic Version

                     The Goths embraced the faith in the third century but in the fourth they fell into
                     Arianism. Their Bishop Ulfilas (318-388), after devising an alphabet, produced a
                     version of the Scriptures from the Septuagint Old Testament and from the Greek
                     of the New. Extant fragments, the oldest of which are of the fifth and sixth
                     century, bear traces of the Septuagint recension of Lucian and of the Syriac
                     versions of the New Testament.

                     (5) Armenian Version

                     History

                     In 406 the Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrob, who five years later
                     completed a translation of the Old and New Testament from the Syriac version
                     into Armenian. This translation was recognized as imperfect, and a few years
                     later Joseph of Baghim and Eznak, disciples of Mesrob, were sent to Edessa to
                     make a new version from the Syriac. When they returned bringing some copies
                     of the Greek version it was seen that their work would be greatly benefited by the
                     use of this "authentic" copy. Consequently some of the translators, including
                     Moses Chorenensis, were sent to study Greek at Alexandria, where the final
                     revision was made, the Old Testament being translated from the Septuagint
                     according to the "Hexapla" of Origen. This version was without delay officially
                     adopted by the authorities in the Armenian Church. Comparatively little use has
                     been made of the Armenian version by scholars engaged in critical work on the
                     Bible, as few of them in the past knew Armenian, and the version moreover was
                     believed to have been modified according to the Peschitto, and even revised
                     under King Haitho II (1224-70), according to the Vulgate. The insertion in
                     particular of the text concerning the three heavenly witnesses (I John, v, 7) was
                     attributed to him, since it was found in Uscan's first printed edition of the
                     Armenian Bible (Amsterdam, 1666). Modern investigation reveals no solid ground
                     for believing in these revisions. As regards I John, v, 7, it is not necessary to
                     assume its insertion by anyone before Uscan, whose edition is lacking in critical
                     value and embodies many emendations and additions taken from the Vulgate.
                     The Armenian version follows quite closely the "received" Greek text. The
                     variations in the manuscripts are probably due to divergencies in the Greek
                     sources. The version is a witness to the general reading of certain Greek copies
                     of the fifth century.

                     Principle Editions

                     The first part of the Armenian version to be printed was the Psalter, published at
                     Venice in 1565 by Abgar. In 1666 Uscan (probably Bishop of Uschovank in
                     Erivan) published at Amsterdam a complete Bible in 4to, and in 1668 a New
                     Testament in 8vo. The former work leaves much to be desired from the standpoint
                     of critical accuracy. Apart from the insertion of the verse I John, v, 7,
                     Ecclesiasticus and IV Esdras were simply translations from the Vulgate made by
                     Uscan himself and the Apocalypse was scarcely less so. The work begun by
                     Uscan was continued and perfected by the Mechitarists (q.v.) and Zohrab
                     published a New Testament (1789), and a critical edition of the whole Bible
                     (1805). Another was issued in 1859. In both these editions the verse I John, v, 7,
                     was omitted as it was not to be found in any of the older manuscripts. The
                     Protestant Bible societies have brought out several editions of the Armenian
                     version both in the classical and in the modern language. Among the former are:
                     Complete Bible (St. Petersburg, 1814; Calcutta, 1817); Old and New Testament
                     separately (St. Petersburg, 1817). Editions in the modern dialect are, among
                     others: Complete Bible (Moscow, 1835); Psalter (Basle, 1844); New Testament
                     (Constantinople, 1860).

                     (6) Georgian, or Grusian, Versions

                     Apparently kindred to the Armenian and probably derived from in the sixth
                     century is the Gregorian version, showing the influence of the Septuagint and the
                     Greek New Testament. It was revised after the Slav translation by Prince
                     Wakuset (Moscow, 1743), and has appeared later with many changes (e.g.,
                     Moscow, 1816; St. Petersburg, 1818).

                     (7) Syriac Versions

                     In the earliest years of Christianity, a Syriac version of the Old Testament made
                     directly from the Hebrew text was employed in the Syrian Church, but in the
                     seventh century, Paul, Bishop of Tella, gave the Monophysites a translation (617)
                     from the Septuagint. It followed literally Origen's Hexaplar text and was later
                     revised by James of Edessa (died 907). In the sixth century there had appeared a
                     version of the Psalter and New Testament from the Greek at the request of
                     Philoxenus, by whose name it has been known. A century later it appeared at
                     Alexandria in a recension of great critical value.

                     (8) Slavic Version

                     Saints Cyril and Methodius preached the Gospel to the Slavs in the second half
                     of the ninth century, and St. Cyril, having formed an alphabet, made for them, in
                     Old Ecclesiastical Slavic, or Bulgarian, a translation of the Bible from the Greek.
                     Toward the close of the tenth century this version found its way into Russia with
                     Christianity, and after the twelfth century it underwent many linguistic and textual
                     changes. A complete Slav Bible after an ancient codex of the time of Waldimir
                     (d. 1008) was published at Ostrog in 1581. When Empress Elizabeth ordered a
                     new revision of St. Cyril's translation (1751), the translators used the Ostrog
                     edition, correcting it according to the Septuagint and changing the Old Slavonic
                     in great part to Modern Russian. This has remained the norm for later Russian
                     Bibles.

                     The United Ruthenians have a version approved by their bishops and printed at
                     Poczajow (1798) and Przemysl (1862).

                     The first complete Polish Bible was printed at Cracow in 1561, 1574, and 1577.
                     As it was proved unsatisfactory for Catholics, Jacob Wujek, S.J., undertook a
                     new translation from the Vulgate (Cracow, 1593), which was praised by Clement
                     VIII, and reprinted frequently. Other Polish Bibles are a Socinian version (Cracow,
                     1563), and a Unitarian from the Hebrew by von Budey (Czaslaw, 1572).

                     In the Czech, or Bohemian, tongue, thirty-three manuscript versions of the entire
                     Bible and twenty-eight of the New Testament are known to have existed in the
                     fifteenth century. A New Testament was printed at Pilsen in 1475 and 1480. A
                     complete Bible by John Pytlik and others appeared at Prague in 1488. In the
                     sixteenth century there were six versions of the whole Bible and sixteen of the
                     New Testament. In the seventeenth century the Jesuits edited the so-called St.
                     Wenceslaus Bible at Prague (1677, 1715, and later). A new translation was
                     made by Durych and Prochaska (Prague, 1778, 1786, 1807). Protestant versions
                     appeared at Pressburg (1787, 1808), Berlin (1807, 1813), and Kisek (1842).

                     A Slovak version of the Bible for Catholics was made by Bernolak (Gran, 1829).

                     A Serbian, or Illyrian, version of the Bible was made by Kassich (1632). There
                     are also two manuscript versions, by Stephen Rosy (1750) and Burgadelli (1800).

                     A Croatian version of the Bible was made by Stephen Istranin and Anton
                     Dalmatin in the sixteenth century.

                     The Vulgate was translated into Bosnian by Peter Katanic. O.S.F. (Budapest,
                     1831).

                     A Dalmatian version with commentary by John Skaric appeared at Vienna
                     (1857-61); a Bible Society edition, the Old Testament by George Danicic and the
                     New Testament by Vuk Karadzic, was also published there (1868).

                     (9) Arabic Versions

                     There exist six or seven Arabic translations of portions of the Old Testament
                     according to the Septuagint, some of them belonging to the tenth century.

                                  VERSIONS DIRECTLY FROM THE HEBREW

                     (1) Chaldaic Versions or Targums

                     After the Babylonian Captivity, the Jews developed a large use of the Chaldaic, or
                     Aramaic, tongue. To meet their needs the Sacred Books were translated into this
                     dialect, and used in the public services of the synagogues not later than the
                     second century B.C. At first the translations were oral, being largely paraphrastic
                     interpretations with comments. In time rules of exegesis were determined, the
                     translations were fixed in writing, and were thus widely circulated even before the
                     time of Christ. Of these Chaldaic versions, called Targums (Paraphrases), there
                     is none extant containing the entire Hebrew Bible.

                          The earliest is on the Pentateuch and is known as the Targum of Onkelos,
                          whom tradition has identified with Aquila and whose Greek translation has
                          something of the same literal character. This Targum, however, was
                          produced by some other, probably in Babylon in the third century.
                          A Targum on the Prophets, in its present form of the fourth century, is
                          attributed to Jonathan ben Uzziel, to whom the Talmud alludes as a
                          disciple of Hillel. In style it resembles the Targum of Onkelos, but its
                          paraphrase is freer.
                          A Targum on the Pentateuch, said to be of Jeruskalmi, or of
                          Pseudo-Jonathan, is also a freer rendition and belongs to the sixth or
                          seventh century.
                          There are also Targums on the Hagiographa, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, etc.
                          (See TARGUM.)

                     (2) Syriac Versions

                     The Peschitto

                     As early as the second century, portions of the Hebrew Bible, as the
                     Pentateuch, the Prophets, and the Psalms, had been translated into Syriac and
                     were in use in the Syrian Church. Gradually the remaining books were given out
                     with versions from the Greek of all the deuterocanonical books except
                     Ecclesiasticus, which was rendered from the Hebrew. The fourth century found
                     the Syrian Christians possessed of a complete translation of the Old Testament,
                     which is known since the ninth century as the Peschitto or "Simple". This name
                     denotes its literal fidelity, or, as others think, a meaning like Vulgate, or
                     Communis, or again indicates its distinction from the version of Paul of Tella, its
                     source, which contains the critical additions of the Hexaplar text. It is the first
                     version of the Hebrew Scriptures made for and by Christians. In antiquity and
                     importance, it ranks next to the Septuagint, according to which it was revised
                     later. A recent edition of the Peschitto was issued from the Dominican
                     printing-press at Mossul (1887-91).

                          Of Syriac versions of the New Testament, one of the earliest is the
                          Diatessaron of Tatian (q.v.).
                          The Peschitto New Testament, like the Old, is still used in the Syrian
                          Church; it was in circulation in the fourth century and existed, in part at
                          least, in the third.
                          In 1842 a portion of what is believed to be an independent Syriac version
                          was found in Egypt. Since its publication in 1858 by Dr. Cureton, it is
                          known as the Curetonian text.
                          The Sinaitic text of a Syrian version consists of fragments found at Mt.
                          Sinai in 1892, and seems an independent version of great antiquity.

                     (3) Arabic Versions

                     An Arabic version of the Hebrew Bible was made in the tenth century by Saadia
                     ha Gaon. Only its Pentateuch, Minor Prophets, Isaias, Psalms, and Job have
                     been preserved. In 1671 an Arabic Bible was published at Rome under the
                     direction of Sergius Risi, Archbishop of Damascus. It appeared in numerous later
                     editions. A mutilated reprint of it (London, 1822) was circulated by the Bible
                     Society. To offset this Protestant influence, complete Arabic versions were
                     issued both by the Dominicans at Mossul (1875-8) and the Jesuits at Beirut
                     (1876-8).

                     Carshuni (Karshuni) Version

                     This is an Arabic version made in Syriac characters for Syrian Christians chiefly
                     of Mesopotamia, Aleppo, and adjacent parts. A New Testament in Carshuni
                     characters containing in two columns the Syriac Peschitto and the Arabic of the
                     Codex of Erpenius was published at Rome (1703) for the Maronites of Lebanon.
                     A Bible Society edition appeared at Paris (1827).

                     (4) Persian Version

                     In the first half of the sixteenth century Rabbi Jacob Tawus translated literally the
                     Massoretic text of the Pentateuch.

                     (5) Samaritan Version of the Pentateuch

                     From at least the fourth century B.C. the Samaritans used a copy of Hebrew
                     Law. It was written in archaic Hebrew characters and differed in some respects
                     from the original. Many of its readings have found favour with not a few Biblical
                     scholars. It was translated with a literal fidelity into Samaritan in the second
                     century B.C. This version was printed in the Polyglots of 1645 and 1647.

                     (6) The Vulgate

                     While revising the text of the Old Latin Version, St. Jerome became convinced of
                     the need in the Western Church of a new translation directly from the Hebrew.
                     His Latin scholarship, his acquaintance with Biblical places and customs
                     obtained by residence in Palestine, and his remarkable knowledge of Hebrew and
                     of Jewish exegetical traditions, especially fitted him for a work of this kind. He
                     set himself to the task A.D. 390 and in A.D. 405 completed the protocanonical
                     books of the Old Testament from the Hebrew, and the deuterocanonical Books of
                     Tobias and Judith from the Aramaic. To these were added his revision of the Old
                     Latin, or Gallican, Psalter, the New Testament, revised from the Old Latin with
                     the aid of the original Greek, and the remaining deuterocanonical books, and
                     portions of Esther, and Daniel, just as they existed in the Itala. Thus was formed
                     that version of the Bible which has had no less influence in the Western Church
                     than the Septuagint has had in the Eastern, which has enriched the thought and
                     language of Europe and has been the source of nearly all modern translations of
                     the Scriptures. The Hebrew text used by St. Jerome was comparatively late,
                     being practically that of the Massoretes. For this reason his version, for textual
                     criticism, has less value than the Peschitto and the Septuagint. As a translation
                     it holds a place between these two. It is elegant in style, clear in expression, and
                     on the whole, notwithstanding some freedoms in the way of restricted or
                     amplified readings, it is faithful to the sense of the original. At first it met with
                     little favour. It was looked upon by some as a perversion suggested and
                     encouraged by the Jews. Others held it to be inferior to the Septuagint, and
                     those who recognized its merits feared it would cause dissensions. But it
                     gradually supplanted the Old Latin Version. Adopted by several writers in the fifth
                     century, it came into more general use in the sixth. At least the Spanish
                     churches employed it in the seventh century, and in the ninth it was found in
                     practically the whole Roman Church. Its title "Vulgate", indicating its common
                     use, and belonging to the Old Latin until the seventh century, was firmly
                     established in the thirteenth. In the sixteenth the Council of Trent declared it the
                     authentic version of the Church.

                     From an early day the text of the Vulgate began to suffer corruptions, mostly
                     through the copyists who introduced familiar readings of the Old Latin or inserted
                     the marginal glosses of the manuscripts which they were transcribing. In the
                     eighth century Alcuin undertook and completed (A.D. 801) a revision with the aid
                     of the best manuscripts then current. Another was made about the same time by
                     Theodulph, Bishop of Orléans. The best known of other and subsequent
                     recensions are those of Lanfranc (d. 1089), of St. Stephen, Abbot of Cîteaux (d.
                     1134), and of Cardinal Nicolas (d. 1150). Then the universities and religious
                     orders began to publish their "Correctoria biblica", or critical commentaries an
                     the various readings found in the manuscripts and writings of the Fathers. After
                     the first printing of the Vulgate by Gutenberg in 1456, other editions came out
                     rapidly. Their circulation with other Latin versions led to increasing uncertainties
                     as to a standard text and caused the Fathers of the Council of Trent to declare
                     that the Vulgate alone was to be held as "authentic in public readings,
                     discourses, and disputes, and that nobody might dare or presume to reject it on
                     any pretence" (Sess. IV, decr. de editione et usu sacrorum librorum). By this
                     declaration the Council, without depreciating the Hebrew or the Septuagint or any
                     other version then in circulation and without forbidding the original texts, approved
                     the Vulgate and enjoined its public and official use as a text free from error in
                     doctrine and morals. It was left to the Holy See itself to provide for a corrected
                     revision of the Vulgate, but the work went on but slowly. Contributing towards the
                     desired end, John Henten, O.P., published at Louvain, 1547, as amended text
                     with variants, which was favourably received. The same was republished at
                     Antwerp, 1583, with a larger number of variants, by the Louvain theologians under
                     the direction of Lucas of Bruges. In 1590 a Roman edition was prepared by a
                     commission of scholars. After revising it, Sixtus V ordered it to be taken as the
                     standard text. After his death a further revision was carried out under the
                     direction of Franciscus Toletus, S.J., and finally the work was printed in 1598,
                     with its title unchanged: "Biblia Sacra Vulgatæ editionis, Sixti V Pontificis
                     Maximi jussu recognita et edita". This was under the pontificate of Clement VIII,
                     and his name has appeared in the title since 1641. This revision is now the
                     officially recognized version of the Latin Rite and contains the only authorized
                     text of the Vulgate. That it has numerous defects has never been denied, yet it
                     ranks high in the evidence it affords of the competent scholarship that produced
                     it. To bring it into closer touch with the latter developments of textual criticism is
                     the purpose that induced Pius X to entrust to the Benedictines the work of further
                     revision. The importance of this enterprise consists in this that it will reproduce,
                     as correctly as possible, the original translation of St. Jerome, and will thereby
                     furnish biblicists with a reliable clue to an ancient Hebrew text, differing in many
                     details from the Septuagint, or the Massoretic Text (BELLARMINE; VULGATE,
                     REVISION OF).

                     Other Latin Versions

                     After St. Jerome the first to translate the Old Testament from the Hebrew into
                     Latin appears to have been Cardinal Carton (d. 1307), Bishop of London, whose
                     work has been lost. Of numerous versions, many of which have perished or are
                     preserved only in manuscripts, noteworthy are the Psalms from the Hebrew by
                     Felix Pratensis, O.S.A. (Venice, 1515). Another Psalter with a version of Job was
                     made by Aug. Justinian, O.P. (Paris, 1516). Xantes Pagninus, O.P. (d. 1514),
                     made an interlinear version of both the Old and New Testaments from the original
                     languages, which by its literal fidelity pleased Christians and Jews and was
                     much used by the Reformers. A revision of this translation resulting in a text even
                     more literal was made by Arias Montano. His work appeared in the Antwerp
                     Polyglot (1572). Another literal version was undertaken by Thomas Malvenda,
                     O.P. (d. 1628), as the basis of an extensive commentary but death ended his
                     labours at the fifteenth chapter of Ezechiel. His work was published at Lyons
                     (1650). In 1763 the Oratorian F. Houbigant edited his "Biblia Veteris Testamenti",
                     rendered from the Hebrew. In the "Biblia Maxima" (Paris, 1660), J. de la Haye,
                     O.Min., collected a great number of variant readings of older Latin versions. A
                     revision of the Vulgate (Venice, 1542, 1557) by Isadore Clarius gave offence on
                     account of many arbitrary changes in the text and was put on the Index.

                     Among the Reformers, Latin Scriptural labours were largely confined to
                     commentaries and the translation of single books, e. g. Melanchthon, Proverbs
                     (1524); Luther, Deuteronomy (1525); Brentius, Job (1527); Drach, Psalms (1540),
                     Daniel (1544), and Joel (1565). A complete Hebrew-Latin Old Testament was
                     given out by Sebastian Münster (Basle, 1534-46). Another Latin version of the
                     Old Testament (Zurich, 1543, and Paris, 1545), bearing the name of Leo Juda,
                     was partly the work of Bibliander, who translated Ezechiel, Daniel, Job,
                     Ecclesiastes, Canticles, and the last forty-eight psalms. Its Apocrypha were
                     translated from the Greek by P. Cholin. A version whose author, Castalion,
                     affected a style of classic elegance, was printed at Basle in 1551. Other versions
                     were put forth by Tremellius and Junius or du Jon (Frankfurt, 1575-9), and by Luc
                     and Andrew Osiander, who sought to correct the Vulgate after the Hebrew.

                                HEBREW VERSIONS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT

                     In 1537 Sebastian Münster published an old translation of the Gospel of St.
                     Matthew, in a rabbinical Hebrew by Schemtob Isaac. Improved editions were
                     made by Tillet (1555), and by Herbst (Göttingen, 1879). The four Gospels were
                     done into classic Hebrew by a converted Jew, Giona, at Rome (1668). The first
                     complete New Testament in Hebrew was made by Elias Hutter and was
                     published in the Nuremberg Polyglot (1600), revised by Robertson (London,
                     1666). A corrected New Testament in Hebrew was given out by Caddock
                     (London, 1798). A number of Bible Society versions have appeared since 1818,
                     and in 1866 Reichhardt and Biesenthal edited a text with accents and vowels.
                     This was revised by Delitzsch in 1877.

                                            MIXED SOURCES

                     Italian Versions

                     Evidences of early versions of at least portions of the Scriptures for liturgical
                     purposes, public readings, and private devotion are not wanting in the history of
                     the Church among any of the peoples to whom her missionaries carried the
                     Gospel. Leaving them and even many later recensions unnoticed, this article will
                     touch on only the more important versions which have had some part and
                     influence in national religious life. In Italy popular knowledge of the Bible in the
                     thirteenth and fourteenth centuries was spread chiefly by the Franciscan and
                     Dominican Friars. A complete version in the vernacular, a manuscript preserved
                     in the National Library at Paris, was made by Nicholas de Nardo, O.P., in 1472.
                     The first printed Bible (Venice, 1471) was due to Nicholas Malermi, O. Camald. A
                     revision of this, with notes, rubrics, and résumés largely after the Biblical
                     commentaries of Nicholas Lyra, was made by Marine de Veneto, O.P. (Venice,
                     1477). Santes Marmochini, O.P. (d. 1545), corrected the heretical version of
                     Bruccioli according to the Vulgate (Venice, 1538, 1547, etc.). Two noteworthy
                     translations of the New Testament were made by Zaccaria Florentini, O.P.
                     (Venice, 1542), and Domenico Gigli (Venice, 1551). The most widely used
                     complete version was produced by Antonio Martini, Archbishop of Florence
                     (Turin, 1776-81). It was approved by Pius VI and has been widely circulated.

                     The first complete Protestant Bible in Italian was printed at Geneva (1562). It was
                     made up of the slightly revised heretical text of Bruccioli's Old Testament (1532),
                     which was a perversion of the Latin of Xantes Pagninus, and not, as pretended, a
                     translation from original sources, and of the apostate Massimo Teofilo's New
                     Testament, first published at Lyons (1551), and revised by Gallars and Beza.
                     This was adopted by the Bible societies. Martini's translation was also taken and
                     shaped to Protestant purposes by the British and Foreign Bible Society (New
                     Testament, 1813, and Bible, 1821).

                     Spanish Versions

                     Several manuscripts of early Spanish versions, e.g. the Biblia Alfonsina, and
                     some made from the Hebrew, are preserved at the Escurial, Madrid. A later work
                     (sixteenth century) is called the Bible of Quiroga, a convert from Judaism, who
                     rose to be cardinal inquisitor. The first printed Bible (Valencia, 1478), following an
                     Old-Testament version from the French and Latin by Romeu de Sabruguera,
                     O.P., was in the Catalonian dialect and was the work of the General of the
                     Carthusians, Boniface Ferrer (d. 1417), a brother of St. Vincent Ferrer, O.P. His
                     manuscript was revised and extensively corrected by Jaime Borrell, O.P. A later
                     translation, of classic elegance and with copious notes, by Philip Scio de S.
                     Miguel, was published at Madrid (1794). Another with a paraphrastic commentary
                     in the text was given out at Madrid (1823) by Amat, but the work is said to have
                     been taken from a manuscript of Father Petisco, S.J. A New Testament by
                     Francisco do Enzinas (Antwerp, 1543) was later much used by the British and
                     Foreign Bible Society. It also adopted a complete version from the Vulgate by the
                     apostate Cassiodore Reyna (Basle, 1596), and a revision of this by the apostate
                     Cypriano de Valera (Amsterdam, 1602). A Lutheran version, the so-called Biblia
                     del Oso, was published by Juan de Valdes (Basle, 1567-69). The Bible of
                     Ferrara, or the Bible of the Jews, was a Spanish version from the Hebrew by
                     Abraham Usque, a Portuguese Jew. Under a pseudonym he issued an edition of
                     the same for Christians. It gained considerable authority and was many times
                     reprinted. A revision by Jos. Athias appeared at Amsterdam in 1661.

                     Portuguese Versions

                     A Portuguese Bible for Catholics was issued by Ant. Pereira de Figueiredo at
                     Lisbon (1784). A New Testament (Amsterdam, 1712), and the Pentateuch and
                     historical books (1719) by J. Ferreira a Almeida, a "convert from Rome", supplied
                     the Bible societies with a version for Portuguese Protestants.

                     Basque Versions

                     A New Testament by Jean Licarrague (Rochelle, 1571) is probably the earliest
                     Biblical work in the Basque tongue. The first Catholic New Testament, translated
                     by Jean Haraneder and later revised by two priests, was published at Bayonne
                     (1855). A complete Bible after the Vulgate was edited at London (1859-65), under
                     the patronage of Prince Lucien Bonaparte. Various portions of the Scriptures and
                     revisions have appeared since.

                     French Versions

                     Versions of the Psalms and the Apocalypse, and a metrical rendering of the
                     Book of Kings, appeared as early as the seventh century. Up to the fourteenth
                     century, many Bible histories were produced. A complete version of the Bible
                     was made in the thirteenth century; the translation of the various parts is of
                     unequal merit. The fourteenth century manuscript Anglo-Norman Bible follows it
                     closely. Independent of either in the manuscript Bible of King John the Good,
                     which though unfinished is described as a "work of science and good taste".
                     Done in the second half of the fourteenth century, it is largely the work of the
                     Dominicans Jean de Sy, Jehan Nicolas, William Vivien, and Jehan de Chambly.
                     Another incomplete version based on the thirteenth-century Bible was the work of
                     Raoul de Presles and is known as the Bible of Charles V. About 1478, appearing
                     at Lyons among the incunabula of France, is a New Testament by Julian Macho
                     and Pierre Farget, and the books of the Old Testament history, published six
                     times. A complete version done literally from the Vulgate and the Greek New
                     Testament was given out by Lefèvre d'Etaples (Antwerp, 1530, 1534, 1541). After
                     revisions by Nicolas de Leuze (Antwerp, 1548), and by Louvain theologians
                     (1550), it remained a standard for over a century. Only verbal improvements were
                     the versions of Pierre de Besse (1608), Pierre Frizon (1621), and Béron (1647).
                     By order of Louis XIII, Jacques Corbin edited his version of the Vulgate (Paris,
                     1643-61), A translation by René Benoist (Paris, 1566) savoured of Calvinism and
                     aroused much controversy. Well known and widely read were the Latin-French
                     editions of Calmet (Paris, 1770-16) and de Carrières (Paris, 1709-17); the latter
                     gave out the French alone (1741), but it was not without errors. A version from
                     original sources (Cologne, 1739; Paris, 1753, 1777, 1819) was the work of Le
                     Gros. Another popular French-Latin Bible was put forth by de Vence (Paris,
                     1748, 1750). It was revised and furnished with Carrières's translation and a
                     commentary after Calmet by Rondet (Paris, 1767-73; Nîmes, 1779). A translation
                     which went through some six editions despite inaccuracies was published at
                     Paris (1821-2) by de Genoude. Bourassé and Janvier gave out a complete version
                     at Tours in 1865. Arnaud published his translations at Paris (1881), but perhaps
                     the most popular of the French versions is that of J.-B. Glaire (Paris, 1871-3,
                     later edited with notes by M. Vigouroux. These complete versions but partially
                     represent the extensive Biblical work of the French Catholics.

                     The first and nearest approach to a national Protestant version for France was
                     made (Serrières, 1535) by Pierre-Robert Olivetan, Calvin's cousin. He was
                     supposed on his own statement to have translated independently, but it is clear
                     that he used almost wholly the New Testament with the interlinear version of
                     Pagninus. Corrected by Calvin, it was republished at Geneva in 1545, and later in
                     other editions, the principal one being the revision (1588) of the pastors of
                     Geneva. This was supplanted by the recension of Osterwald (1744), an
                     improvement in style, but a work replete with errors. Others differing but little from
                     the Olivetan-Genevan versions were edited by Castalio (Basle, 1555) and Martin
                     (Amsterdam, 1707). A version from original sources, and accepted by the Oxford
                     University Press for national official use, was given out by Segond (Geneva,
                     1874; Nancy, 1877; and Geneva, 1879).

                     The Jansenists are represented in a New Testament translation (Amsterdam,
                     1667) by Isaac Le Maistre de Sacy and Antoine Arnauld. The work contained
                     many errors and the writers' bias appeared in frequent alterations. A version of
                     the whole Bible was undertaken by de Sacy in 1666, but death intervened; it was
                     completed by du Fossé and Huré (Paris, 1682-1706; Brussels, 1705-30; Nîmes,
                     1781). Whilst the work was never censured as a whole, several of its
                     New-Testament books were condemned by individual bishops. A Jewish Bible by
                     S. Cahen, presenting both the Hebrew and the French with notes philological,
                     etc., was issued at Paris (1831-51), but its text has been found incorrect and its
                     notes often contradictory. A Rationalist Bible after the Hebrew and Greek by
                     Ledrain appeared at Paris (1886-96).

                     German Versions

                     The history of Biblical research in Germany shows that of the numerous partial
                     versions in the vernacular some go back to the seventh and eighth centuries. It
                     also establishes the certainty of such versions on a considerable scale in the
                     thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and points to a complete Bible of the fifteenth
                     in general use before the invention of printing. Of special interest are the five
                     complete folio editions printed before 1477, nine from 1477 to 1522, and four in
                     Low German, all prior to Luther's New Testament in 1522. They were made from
                     the Vulgate, differing only in dialect and presenting variant readings. Their worth
                     even to this day has been attested by many scholars. Deserving notice as
                     belonging to the same period are some fourteen editions of the Psalter and no
                     less than ninety editions of the Epistles and Gospels for Sundays and Holy
                     Days. On the authority of a Nuremberg manuscript, Jostes (Histor. Jahrbuch,
                     1894, XV, 771, and 1897, XVIII, 133) establishes the fact of a complete
                     translation of the Bible by John Rellach, O.P., of Constance (before 1450), and
                     thinks it was the first German version printed. A New Testament by Beringer
                     (Speyer, 1526) was in part a correction of Luther's version. In 1527 another New
                     Testament was put forth by Emser who worked from the Vulgate and an older
                     version, likewise correcting Luther.

                     In 1534 John Dietenberger, O.P., gave out a complete version at Mainz based on
                     a primitive translation with aid from Emser's New Testament and from the
                     deuterocanonical books by Leo Juda. His agreement in places with Luther is due
                     to the use by both of a common source. The Dietenberger Bible underwent
                     frequent revision, and up to 1776 had fifty-eight complete editions. It was revised
                     (1) by Caspar Ulenberg (Mainz, 1549, 1617; Cologne, 1630); (2) by the
                     theologians of Mainz, i.e. Jesuits (1661, 1662, etc.), from whom it received the
                     title of the Catholic Bible; (3) by Th. Erhard, O.S.B. (Augsburg, 1722, 6th ed.,
                     1748); (4) by G. Cartier, O.S.B. (Constance, 1751); (5) by Ignatius Weitenauer
                     (Augsburg, 1783-89), whose version with notes was valued even by Protestants
                     for its fidelity and literary excellence. An important new translation of the Vulgate
                     was published at Augsburg (1788-97) by H. Braun, O.S.B. This was revised by
                     Feder (Nürnberg, 1803) and by Allioli (Landshut, 1830, 1832). In successive
                     editions the last named has almost wholly changed the original so that it is now
                     known only by his name. It is much esteemed as a literary rendering and is
                     widely read. An excellent version made from the Vulgate and compared with
                     original sources was put forth by Loch and Reischl (Ratisbon, 1851-66). From
                     original sources D. Brentano began and Th. A. Dereser finished a version
                     (Frankfurt, 1799-1828), with notes savouring of Rationalism. A second edition
                     was emended by J.M. Scholz. This account includes only the most
                     representative versions made by German Catholics.

                     Luther's Biblical translations, begun in 1522, when he issued his New Testament,
                     and carried on to 1545, when he finished the deuterocanonical books and the first
                     complete edition of his Bible, have retained a strong hold on German and other
                     Protestants and by many are esteemed as little less than inspired. He saw to
                     many corrections and revisions himself, and his work went through some ten
                     editions in his own lifetime. Though supposed to translate from the originals, he
                     made use of the Latin version of Lyra, the Hebrew-Latin interlinear of Pagninus,
                     and an older German translation of the Vulgate whose order he retained. His
                     renderings were often excessively free and at times he arbitrarily changed the
                     sense of the original. The Swiss Zwinglians adopted such portions of Luther's
                     work as had appeared before 1529. That year they added their own version of the
                     Prophets and the deuterocanonical books by Leo Juda, the whole being called
                     the Zurich Bible. In 1860-8 this work was revised and is still in use. An
                     Anabaptist version was made by Hetzer (Worms, 1529), and Calvinist versions
                     by Parens (1579) and by Piscator (Herborn, 1602-4). A Socinian Bible was given
                     out by Crellius (Racovia, 1630). In the eighteenth century versions reflecting
                     different beliefs and doctrinal attitudes were put forth by Michaelis (1709),
                     Moldenhauer (1774), Grynæus (1776), and Vögelin (1781). Of several
                     nineteenth-century versions the most important is that of de Wette and Augusti
                     (Heidelberg, 1809-14). A complete revision by Wette was published in 1831-3
                     and later. It is considered a good translation but excessively literal.

                     A Jewish-German Bible (Old Testament) by Athias appeared in 1666. It was
                     reproduced in the Biblia Pentapla (Hamburg, 1711). Another Jewish version
                     (Berlin, 1838) was the work of Arnheim, Füchs, and Sachs.

                     Dutch and Flemish Versions

                     The first Bible for Catholics in Holland was printed at Delft in 1475. Among
                     several issued from the press of Jacob van Leisveldt at Antwerp, one (1540) with
                     the text of the Vulgate is called the Biblia Belgica. The first authoritative version
                     for Catholics was translated from Henten's Vulgate by Nicholas van Wingh, Peter
                     de Cort, and Godevaert Stryode, O.P. (Louvain, 1545). After seventeen complete
                     editions it was revised according to the Clementine Vulgate and became the
                     celebrated Bible of Moerentorf or Moretus (1599). This revision reached more
                     than a hundred editions, and is still used. Among several unfinished versions,
                     one by Th. Beelen was carried out by a group of ecclesiastics, viz. Old
                     Testament (Bruges, 1894-6). Beelen's New Testament had previously appeared
                     at Louvain (1859-69).

                     A complete Bible based largely on Luther's version was given out by Jacob Van
                     Liesveldt at Antwerp in 1526. In 1556 it was superseded by Van Utenhove's
                     version after Luther and Olivetan. The Calvinists of Holland completed in 1637 a
                     so-called state Bible, a version said to be from original sources, but greatly
                     influenced by the English Authorized Version, reproducing in a great measure its
                     remarkable felicity of style.

                     Scandinavian Versions

                     In the fourteenth century, versions of the Sunday Epistles and Gospels were
                     made for popular use in Denmark. Large portions of the Bible, if not an entire
                     version, were published about 1470. The historical books of the Old Testament
                     and the Apocalypse in Swedish are all that are preserved of a complete version
                     made in the fifteenth century and derived from earlier translations in use in the
                     time of St. Bridget (d. 1373). In the beginning of the fourteenth century, King
                     Hakon V provided for a Norwegian translation of the historical books of the Old
                     Testament, with glossary. (Cf. Danish Heptateuch edited by Molbech, Havnian,
                     1828.) Scandinavian Protestant Bibles for the most part are translated from
                     Luther's version. A complete Danish Bible was published 1550 under the
                     direction of Christian Pedersen (revised in 1824). Two independent versions were
                     given out by Lindberg and Kalkar. In 1541 the first Swedish version appeared; it
                     has been frequently revised. An Icelandic version was published at Holum in
                     1584.

                     Finnish Version

                     A translation of the New Testament by Michael Agricola, a Lutheran, was made
                     for the Finns and published at Stockholm (1548), and a complete Bible from
                     original sources by several scholars was put forth in 1642, 1758, 1776, etc. A
                     less successful version of the Bible was issued by Henry Florin at Abo (1685).
                     Numerous Bible Society editions of both Testaments appeared later. In the
                     Esthonian dialect, a New Testament by John Fisher (1686), and the Old
                     Testament by Fisher and Gosekenius (1689), are noteworthy. Other complete
                     Bibles from partial versions of an earlier date were made in the Esthonian dialect
                     of Reval (Berlin, 1876) and in the Esthonian of Dorpot (1850). A Laplandish
                     version of the whole Bible was published it Hernösand (1811).

                     Hungarian Versions

                     A fourteenth-fifteenth-century manuscript in Vienna gives parts of the Old
                     Testament from the Vulgate by the Friars Minor, Thomas and Valentine. A
                     fifteenth-century manuscript of the whole Bible at Gran, the Codex Jordanszky, is
                     believed to contain at least in part a version that was made by Ladislaus Bathory,
                     Hermit of the Order of St. Paul (d. 1456). John Sylvester, or Serestely, O.P., is
                     credited with a translation of the New Testament which was published at Novæ
                     Insulæ (1541) and Vienna (1574). A complete version was made towards the end
                     of the sixteenth century by Stephen Szántó (Latin, Arator). In 1626 a translation
                     after the Vulgate was put forth at Vienna by George Káldi, S.J. Having
                     ecclesiastical approbation, it gained a wide circulation and is still in use after
                     having been printed in many editions. A version after the Protestant Genevan
                     Bible was made by Caspar Károly in 1590. It was revised by Albert Molnar
                     (Hanau, 1608). Other translations appeared by Caspar Heltai (Klausenberg,
                     1551-64) and by George Csipkés (Leyden, 1717). Andrew Torkos (Wittenberg,
                     1736) and G. Bárány (Lauban, 1754) gave out Lutheran versions.

                     Celtic Versions

                     Irish

                     Ancient Gaelic versions of the Psalms, of a Gospel of St. Matthew, and other
                     sacred writings with glosses and commentaries are found as early as the
                     seventh century, Most of the literature through subsequent centuries abounds in
                     Scriptural quotations. A fourteenth-century manuscript, the "Leabhar Braec"
                     (Speckled Book), published at Dublin (1872-5), contains a history of Israel and a
                     compendious history of the New Testament. It has also the Passion of Jesus
                     Christ, a translation from the apocryphal Gospel of Nicodemus. Another
                     fourteenth-century manuscript, the "Leabhar Buide Lecain", also gives the
                     Passion and a brief Old-Testament history. Some scholars see in these writings
                     indications of an early Gaelic version of the Scriptures previous to the time of St.
                     Jerome. A modern Protestant Gaelic New Testament, begun from the original
                     Greek by John Kearney, 1574, Nicholas Walsh (later Bishop of Ossory), and
                     Nehemias Donellan (later Archbishop of Tuam), and finished by William
                     O'Donnell and Mortogh O'Cionga (King), was printed in 1602. An Old-Testament
                     version from original sources by Dr. Bedell was published at London (1686). A
                     second edition in Roman characters was published (1790) for the Scottish
                     Highlanders. A version of Genesis and Exodus was made by Connellan (London,
                     1820), and also by John MacHale, later Archbishop of Tuam (1840).

                     Scottish

                     In Scotland the Synod of Argyll gave out a Gaelic version of fifty psalms
                     (Glasgow, 1659), and all the psalms in 1715. A Psalter was also made by Robert
                     Kick (Edinburg, 1684). A complete Bible, based on earlier versions of the
                     Testaments, was published for the London Bible Society (London, 1807), and a
                     revision of it was ordered by the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church at
                     Edinburgh (1826). A New Testament from the Latin for Catholics by P.
                     MacEachain appeared at Aberdeen in 1875.

                     Breton, or Armoric, Versions

                     A New Testament was in existence at the end of the fifteenth century, but the
                     first complete Bible was published by Le Gonidec at St. Brieuc (1866), and a
                     Protestant version by M. Le Coat appeared at London in 1890. These versions
                     differ in dialect.

                     Welsh, or Cymric, Versions

                     Partial versions were made before the fifteenth century, but a translation by
                     Celydd Sfan was known to be in existence about 1470. A New Testament,
                     decreed by Parliament in 1526, was edited by several scholars in 1557. A
                     revision of this and an Old Testament version by William Morgan appeared at
                     London in 1588. This was got out in a revision which was practically a new
                     translation by Richard Parry and John Davies (London, 1620). It was the standard
                     for later reprints. A more convenient edition, including the Book of Common
                     Prayer, etc., was published by Pryce (London, 1630). A version made at Oxford
                     (1690) was called the Bishop Lloyd's Bible and was the first to be printed in
                     Roman characters. The Moses Williams' Bible (London, 1718) was put forth by
                     the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge. The British and Foreign
                     Bible Society grew out of the efforts of Thomas Charles to provide Bibles for the
                     people of Wales. Its first Welsh Bible following an edition of 1752 was printed in
                     1806.

                                       MISCELLANEOUS VERSIONS

                     Aleutian

                     An Aleutian version of St. Matthew was made by the Russian priest, Ivan
                     Veniaminoff, in 1840 for the Aleutian Islanders.

                     Aniwa

                     The Gospels of St. Matthew and St. Luke were translated into the dialect of the
                     Island of Aniwa by Paton (Melbourne, 1877).

                     Aneitumese Versions

                     For the inhabitants of the Island of Aneiteum, New Hebrides Islands, a New
                     Testament was made by Geddie and Inglis (1863), and an Old Testament version
                     by Inglis (1878).

                     Battak Versions

                     A New Testament for the Battaks of Sumatra was made in the Toba dialect by
                     Nommensen (Elberfeld, 1878); another by Schreiber, revised by Leipoldt, was
                     made in the Mandeling dialect (1878).

                     Benga Versions

                     A version of St. Matthew in 1858, and of the other Gospels and the Acts later,
                     revised by Nassau in 1874, was provided for the people south of the Congo River,
                     who use the Benga dialect.

                     Bengali Versions

                     This was a New Testament by Carey (Serampur, 1801; 8th ed., 1832), and an
                     Old-Testament version (1802-09). The Old Testament also appeared at Calcutta
                     (1833-44). Revisions of both Testaments were made by Wenger (1873) and by
                     others.

                     Chinese Versions

                     Among earlier translations is a version of St. Matthew by Anger, a Japanese
                     Christian (Goa, 1548). The Jesuit Father de Mailla wrote an explanation of the
                     Gospels for Sundays and feasts in 1740, and it is still used. The four Gospels
                     with notes were edited by J. Dejean, Apostolic missionary (Hong-Kong, 1892).
                     Other partial versions were made by missionaries, but the first Bible for
                     Protestant use was the work of Lassar and Marshman (Serampur, 1815-22).
                     Another version is credited to Dr. Morrison. Aided by Milne he translated the Old
                     Testament, to which he added the New Testament of Hodgson; the whole was
                     published at Malacca (1823; new edition, 1834). A company of Protestant
                     missionaries gave out a new translation of the New Testament in 1850 and of the
                     whole Bible in 1855 at Shanghai and Hong-Kong. This, which was the generally
                     adopted version, came out in a new edition at Shanghai (1873). An Old
                     Testament in the Mandarin colloquial dialect was made by Schereschewsky and
                     published at Pekin (1875). These translations in general are unsatisfactory.

                     Gypsy or Romany Version

                     A Gospel of St. Luke by G. Borrow was published at Madrid (1837). It is said to
                     have been the first book ever printed in this tongue. It was revised and reissued in
                     1872.

                     Hindi Version

                     A New Testament was published by Carey (Serampur, 1811); and the whole
                     Bible, after the Hindustani, by Bowley (1866-69).

                     Hindustani Versions

                     A translation of the Psalms and the New Testament was made by Schulze, a
                     Danish missionary, and published at Halle (1746-58). another New Testament by
                     Henry Martyn appeared at Serampur (1814). There was also a Bible Society
                     edition at Calcutta (1817) and one at London (1819); the Pentateuch (1823), and
                     the Old Testament (1844). Other editions have followed.

                     Japanese Versions

                     A version of St. John's Gospel and of the Acts was edited in katakana (square
                     type) at Singapore (1836) by Charles Gutzlaff. The four Gospels and the Acts
                     were put forth in a very imperfect hiragana (round type) version at Vienna (1872)
                     by Bettleheim, who was aided by an American student of Japanese origin. A
                     company of revisers and translators gave out the Gospels of Saints Matthew,
                     Mark, and John and the Acts at Yokohama in 1871 and a New Testament in
                     1879. A later and better version was provided by the Baptists, and the Old
                     Testament (except the deuterocanonical books) was published in 1888. A version
                     of Saints Matthew and Mark (1895) and of Saints Luke and John (1897), edited at
                     Tokio, was made by Fathers Péri and Steichen, aided by a native littérateur, M.
                     Takahashigorô.

                     Javanese Version

                     Gottlob Brücker published a New Testament at Serampur in 1831. This was
                     made a Bible Society revision in 1848, and under the same auspices an
                     Old-Testament version appeared in 1857 and later.

                     Mexican Versions

                     The first known Biblical undertaking in Mexico was a version of the Gospels and
                     Epistles in 1579 by Didacus de S. Maria, O.P., and the Book of Proverbs by
                     Louis Rodríguez, O.S.F. A Bible Society version of the New Testament was
                     made in 1829, but only the Gospel of St. Luke was printed.

                     Modern Greek Version

                     A New Testament for Catholics was made by Colletus (Venice, 1708). A
                     Protestant edition by Maximus of Kallipoli was published at Geneva or Leyden in
                     1638. It appeared in later revisions. A Bible Society version of the Old Testament
                     was published in England (1840); a New Testament at Athens (1848).

                                          ENGLISH VERSIONS

                     What prevented the earliest English missionaries from translating the Scriptures
                     into the vernacular, or what caused the loss of such immediate translations, if
                     any were made, is hard to determine at this late date. Though Christianity had
                     been established among the Anglo-Saxons in England about the middle of the
                     sixth century, the first known attempt to translate or paraphrase parts of the
                     Bible is Cædmons's song, "De creatione mundi, et origine humani generis, et
                     tota Genesis historia etc." (St. Bede, "Hist. eccl.", IV, xxiv). Some authors even
                     doubt the authenticity of the poetry ascribed to Cædmon. The English work in
                     Bible study of the following nine centuries will be conveniently divided into three
                     periods comprising three centuries each.

                     A. Eighth to Tenth Century

                     In the first period extending from the eighth to the tenth century we meet: (1) St.
                     Bede's translation of John, i, 1-vi, 9; (2) interlinear glosses on the Psalms; (3) the
                     Paris Psalter; (4) the so-called Lindisfarne Gospels; (5) the Rushworth version;
                     (6) the West-Saxon Gospels; (7) Ælfric's version of a number of Old-Testament
                     books.

                     (1) The proof for the existence of St. Bede's work rests on the authority of his
                     pupil Guthberht who wrote about this fact to his fellow-student Cuthwine (see
                     Mayor and Lumby, "Bedæ hist. eccl.", 178).

                     (2) The "Glossed Psalters" have come down to us in twelve manuscripts, six of
                     which represent the Roman Psalter, and six the Gallican. The oldest and most
                     important of these manuscripts is the so called Vespesian Psalter, written in
                     Mercia in the first half of the ninth century.

                     (3) The Paris Psalter advances beyond the glosses in as far as it is a real
                     translation of Ps. i, 1-l, 10, ascribed by some scholars to King Alfred (d. 901),
                     though others deny this view. Cf. William of Malmesbury. "Gesta regum
                     Anglorum", II, 123.

                     (4) The Lindisfarne Gospels, called also the Durham Book, the Book of St.
                     Cuthbert, present the Latin text of the Gospels dating from Redfrith, Bishop of
                     Lindisfarne (698-721), with the so-called Northumbrian Gloss on the Gospels,
                     added about 950 by Aldred. Cf. Dr. Charles O'Conor, "Bibl. stowensis", II
                     (1818-19), 180.

                     (5) The Rushworth version of the first Gospel, with glosses on the second, third,
                     and fourth Gospels, based on the Lindisfarne glosses. Faerman, a priest of
                     Harewood (Harwood), made the translation of St. Matthew and furnished the
                     glosses on St. Mark, i, 1-ii, 15; St. John, xviii, 1-3; the rest of the work is taken
                     from Owun's glosses.

                     (6) The West-Saxon Gospels are a rendering of the Gospels originating in the
                     south of England about the year 1000; seven manuscripts of this version have
                     come down to us. Cf. W.W. Skeat, "The Gospels in Anglo-Saxon etc."
                     (Cambridge, 1871-87).

                     (7) Ælfric himself states in his work "De vetere testamento", written about 1010,
                     that he had translated the Pentateuch, Josue, Judges, Kings, Job, Esther,
                     Judith, and the Books of the Machabees. The translator frequently abridges,
                     slightly in Genesis, more notably in the Book of Judges and the following books;
                     he adopts a metrical form in Judith. Cf. Nieder in "Zeitschrift für historische
                     Theologie" (1855-56).

                     B. Eleventh to Fourteenth Century

                     The second period coincides with the Anglo-Norman time, extending from the
                     tenth to the thirteenth or fourteenth century. During this time, French or the
                     Anglo-Norman dialect reigned supreme among the upper classes, and in
                     academic and official circles, while English was confined to the lower classes
                     and the country-districts. The Bible renderings during the twelfth, thirteenth, and
                     early fourteenth centuries were in French, whether they were made in England or
                     brought over from France. Before the middle of the fourteenth century the entire
                     Old Testament and a great part of the New Testament had been translated into
                     the Anglo-Norman dialect of the period (cf. Berger, "La Bible française au moyen
                     âge", Paris, 1884, 78 sqq.). As to English work, we may note two transcripts of
                     the West-Saxon Gospels during the course of the eleventh century and some
                     copies of the same Gospels into the Kentish dialect made in the twelfth century.
                     The thirteenth century is an absolute blank as far as our knowledge of its English
                     Bible study is concerned. The English which emerged about the middle and
                     during the second half of the fourteenth century was practically a new language,
                     so that both the Old English versions which might have remained, and the French
                     versions hitherto in use, failed to fulfil their purpose.

                     C. Fourteenth Century and After

                     The third period extends from the late fourteenth to the sixteenth or early
                     seventeenth century, and has furnished us with the pre-Wyclifite, the Wyclif, and
                     the printed versions of the Bible.

                     (1) Pre-Wyclifite Translations

                     Among the pre-Wyclifite translations we may note:

                          The West Midland Psalter, probably written between 1340 and 1350;
                          some attribute it to William of Shoreham. It contains the whole Psalter,
                          eleven canticles, and the Athanasian Creed, and is preserved in three
                          manuscripts (cd. Bülbring, "The Earliest Complete English Prose Psalter",
                          I, London, 1891).
                          Richard Rolle's (d. 1349) English version of the "Commentary on the
                          Psalms" by Peter Lombard spread in numerous copies throughout the
                          country (cf. Bramley, "The Psalter and Certain Canticles...by Richard
                          Rolle of Hampole", Oxford, 1884).
                          Here belongs a version of the Apocalypse with a commentary; the latter
                          was for some time attributed to Wyclif, but is really a version of a Norman
                          commentary from the first half of the thirteenth century. Its later revisions
                          agree so well with the Wyclif version that they must have been utilized in
                          its preparation.
                          The Pauline Epistles were rendered in the North Midlands or the North;
                          they are still extant in a manuscript of the fifteenth century.
                          Another version of the Pauline Epistles, and of the Epistles of St. James
                          and St. Peter (only the first) originated in the south of England somewhere
                          in the fourteenth century (cf. the edition of A. C. Paves, Cambridge, 1904).
                          A scholar of the north of England translated also commentaries on the
                          Gospels of St. Matthew, St. Mark, and St. Luke.
                          Several manuscripts preserve to us a version of the Books of Acts and the
                          Catholic Epistles, either separately or in conjunction with a fragmentary
                          Southern version of the Pauline Epistles and part of the Catholic Epistles,
                          mentioned under (5). Cf. A. C. Paues, "A Fourteenth-Century English
                          Biblical Version", Cambridge, 1904.
                          Besides these versions of particular books of Holy Scripture, there existed
                          numerous renderings of the Our Father, the Ten Commandments, the Life,
                          Passion, and Resurrection of Christ, and of the parts read on Sundays
                          and Feastdays in the Mass. In general, if we may believe the testimony of
                          Archbishop Cranmer, Sir Thomas More, Foxe the martyrologist, and the
                          authors of the Preface to the Reims Testament, the whole Bible was to be
                          found in the mother tongue long before John Wyclif was born (cf.
                          "American Ecclesiastical Review", XXXII, Philadelphia, June, 1905, 594).

                     (2) Wyclifite Versions

                     The Wyclifite versions embrace the earlier and the later version of this name.

                     The Early Version was probably completed in 1382, the Later Version about 1388
                     (cf. Madden and Forshall, "The Holy Bible . . . made from the Latin Vulgate by
                     John Wycliffe and his Followers", Oxford, 1850; Gasquet, "The Old English Bible
                     and other Essays", London, 1897, pp. 102 sqq.). It is quite uncertain what part
                     Wyclif himself took in the work that bears his name. As far as the New
                     Testament is concerned, Wyclif's authorship of the Early Version is based on his
                     authorship of the "Commentary on the Gospels", the text of which is said to have
                     been used in the Early Edition; the style of this text is claimed to resemble the
                     style of the translation of the Book of Acts, the Epistles, and the Apocalypse.
                     But the style of the text of the "Commentary" resembles that of the Later Version
                     rather than that of the Early Version; besides, passages from both the Old and
                     the New Testament of the Early Version are quoted in the "Commentary on the
                     Gospels". It would be folly, therefore, not to assign the authorship of the
                     "Commentary" to a time posterior to the Early Edition. As to the Old Testament,
                     the translator's original copy and a coeval transcript are still extant, but both
                     break off at Baruch, iii, 19, with the words: "explicit translacionem Nicholay de
                     herford". It is claimed that the similarity of style and mode of translating shows
                     that Nicholas of Herford translated the Old Testament up to Bar., iii, 19. It is
                     claimed, furthermore, that the remaining portion of the Old Testament was
                     translated by one hand, the one who made the version of the New Testament.
                     But both these claims rest on very slender evidence. The extant translator's copy
                     is written in not less than five hands, differing in orthography and dialect.
                     Nicholas, therefore, translated at most only the portion ending with Bar., iii, 19.
                     Besides, the magnitude of the work renders it most probable that other
                     translators beside Wyclif and Nicholas took part in the work, and that already
                     existing versions were incorporated or utilized by the translators.

                     The Early Edition was complete indeed, as far as the translators considered the
                     books canonical, but it was soon found lacking in the necessary qualities of style
                     and English idiom. It is at times unintelligible and even nonsensical from a too
                     close adherence to the Latin text. A revision was, therefore, found necessary and
                     taken in hand shortly after the completion of the Early Version. The principles of
                     the work are laid down in the prologue of the so-called Later Version. We do not
                     know either the revisers or the exact date of the revision. John Purvey, the leader
                     of the Lollard party, is generally assumed to have taken a large part in the work.
                     The style and idiom of the Later Version are far superior to those of the Early,
                     and there can be little doubt as to its popularity among the Wyclifites. But the
                     Lollards soon introduced interpolations of a virulent character into their sacred
                     texts; violence and anarchy set in, and the party came to be regarded as
                     enemies of order and disturbers of society. It is small wonder that the
                     ecclesiastical authorities soon convened in the Synod of Oxford (1408) and
                     forbade the publication and reading of unauthorized vernacular versions of the
                     Scriptures, restricting the permission to read the Bible in the vernacular to
                     versions approved by the ordinary of the place, or, if the case so require, by the
                     provincial council.

                     (3) Printed English Bibles

                     We are now entering the period of printed English Scriptures. France, Spain,
                     Italy, Bohemia, and Holland possessed the Bible in the vernacular before the
                     accession of Henry VIII; in Germany the Scriptures were printed in 1466, and
                     seventeen editions had left the press before the apostasy of Luther. No part of
                     the English Bible was printed before 1525, no complete Bible before 1535, and
                     none in England before 1538.

                     (a) William Tyndale was the first to avail himself of the new opportunities
                     furnished by the press and the new learning. Tyndale went early to Oxford,
                     thence to Cambridge; he was ordained priest, and professed among the
                     Franciscan Fathers at Greenwich. In 1524 he went to Hamburg and from there to
                     Wittenberg to visit Luther. Assisted by William Roye, like himself an apostate
                     Franciscan from the monastery at Greenwich, he translated the New Testament,
                     and began to have it printed in Cologne in 1525. Driven from Cologne, he went to
                     Worms where he printed 3000 copies, and sent them to England in the early
                     summer of 1526. The fourth edition was printed at Antwerp (1534). In 1530
                     Tyndale's Pentateuch was printed, in 1531 his book of Jonas. Between the date
                     of Tyndale's execution, 6 Oct., 1536, and the year 1550 numerous editions of the
                     New Testament were reprinted, twenty-one of which Francis Fry (Biographical
                     Descriptions of the Editions of the New Testament, 1878) enumerates and
                     describes (see Westcott, "Hist. of the English Bible", London, 1905).

                     (b) Miles Coverdale, born about 1488, educated at the Augustinian monastery at
                     Cambridge, was ordained priest in that order about 1514. After 1528 we find him
                     on the Continent in Tyndale's society. He was favoured by Edward VI, but was
                     imprisoned under Queen Mary in 1553; after obtaining his freedom, he remained
                     on the Continent till the death of Mary, after which he returned to England, and
                     died in February, 1569. He prepared a complete English Bible, the printing of
                     which was finished 4 Oct., 1535. He was the first to omit the deuterocanonical
                     books in the body of the Old Testament, adding them at the end as "apocrypha".
                     His work is a second-hand eclectic translation, based on the Latin and the
                     German versions.

                     (c) The London booksellers now became alive to the ready sale of the Bible in
                     English; Grafton and Whitchurch were the first to avail themselves of this
                     business opportunity, bringing out in 1537 the so-called Matthew's Bible. Thomas
                     Matthew is an alias for John Rogers, a friend and fellow-worker of Tyndale. The
                     Matthew's Bible is only a compilation of the renderings of Tyndale and Coverdale.

                     (d) In 1539 the Matthew's Bible was followed by Taverner's edition of the Bible, a
                     work which in our day would be considered a literary "piracy", being nothing more
                     than a revision of the Matthew text. Though Taverner was an accomplished Greek
                     scholar and somewhat of an English purist, his edition had no influence on the
                     subsequent translations.

                     (e) About 1536 Cromwell had placed Coverdale at the head of the enterprise for
                     bringing out an approved version of the English Bible. The new version was based
                     on the Matthew's Bible. Coverdale consulted in his revision of the Latin Version of
                     the Old Testament with the Hebrew text by Sebastian Münster, the Vulgate, and
                     Erasmus's edition of the Greek for the New Testament. The work was ready for
                     the press in 1538, and the printing was begun at Paris, but had to be transferred
                     to London on 17 December of the same year. In April of the following year the
                     edition was finished, and owing to its size the version was called the Great Bible.
                     Before 1541 six other editions issued from the press.

                     (f) During the reign of Mary a number of English reformers withdrew to Geneva,
                     the town of Calvin and Beza, and here they issued in 1557 a New Testament with
                     an introduction by Calvin. It was probably the work of William Whittingham, and it
                     was the first English Bible which had its text divided into "verses and sections
                     according to the best editions in other languages".

                     (g) Whittingham's work was soon superseded by an issue of the whole Bible,
                     which appeared in 1560, the so-called Geneva Bible, also known as the
                     Breeches Bible from its rendering of Gen., iii, 7, "they sewed fig leaves together
                     and made themselves breeches". The Old Testament represented the text of the
                     Great Bible thoroughly revised with the help of the Hebrew original and other
                     sources, while the New Testament consisted of Tyndale's latest text revised in
                     accordance with Beza's translation and commentary. The handy form and other
                     attractive features of the work rendered it so popular that between 1560 and 1644
                     at least 140 editions were published.

                     (h) After the accession of Elizabeth an attempt was made to improve the
                     authorized Great Bible and thus to counteract the growing popularity of the
                     Calvinistic Geneva Bible. Bishop Parker divided the whole Bible into parcels, and
                     distributed them among bishops and other learned men for revision. The resultant
                     version was ready for publication on 5 October, 1568, and became generally
                     known as the Bishops' Bible. Several editions were afterwards published, and the
                     Great Bible ceased to be reprinted in 1569, excepting its Psalter which was
                     introduced into the Bishops' Bible in 1572, and admitted exclusively in 1585. The
                     Bishops' Bible is noted for its inequality in style and general merit; it could not
                     replace the Geneva Bible in the English home.

                     (i) In October, 1578, Gregory Martin, assisted chiefly by William (later Cardinal)
                     Allen, Richard Bristow, Thomas Worthington, and William Reynolds began the
                     work of preparing an English translation of the Bible for Catholic readers. Dr.
                     Martin rendered into English one or two chapters every day; the others then
                     revised, criticised, and corrected the translation. Thus the New Testament was
                     published at Reims in 1582 with a preface and explanatory notes. The notes
                     were written chiefly by Bristow, Allen, and Worthington. The Old Testament was
                     published at Douai (1609-10) through the efforts of Dr. Worthington, then superior
                     of the seminary. The translation had been prepared before the appearance of the
                     New Testament, but the publication was delayed "for lack of good means" and
                     "our poor estate in banishment". The religious adherence to the Latin text is the
                     reason of the less elegant and idiomatic words and phrases found in the
                     translation. The original Douai Version has undergone so many revisions that
                     "scarcely any verse remains as it was originally published". Dr. Challoner
                     probably merits the credit of being the principal reviser of the Douai Version
                     (1749-50); among the many other revisers we may mention Archbishop Kenrick,
                     Dr. Lingard, Dr. John Gilmary Shea.

                     (j) The Reims Version had its influence on the Authorized Version (q.v.), which
                     was begun in 1604 and published in 1611 (see Carleton, "The Part of the Reims
                     in the Making of the English Bible", Oxford, 1902). The work was distributed
                     among six committees of scholars, the Bishops' Bible being taken as the basis
                     to work on. A body of rules was drawn up which contained both a scheme of
                     revision and general directions for the execution of their work. The actual work of
                     revision occupied about two years and nine months, and an additional nine
                     months were required for the final preparation of the press. But even after its
                     publication in 1611 deliberate changes were introduced silently and without
                     authority by men whose very names are often unknown.

                     (k) In February, 1870, the Convocation of Canterbury appointed a committee to
                     consider the subject of an authorized revision of the Authorized Version. After the
                     report of the committee had been presented in May and had been adopted, two
                     companies were formed for the revision of the Old and the New Testaments
                     respectively. The members of each company were partly appointed, partly
                     invited. The revision of the New Testament was completed in 407 meetings,
                     distributed over more than ten years, and was finally presented to Convocation on
                     17 May, 1881; the revision of the Old Testament occupied 792 days, and was
                     finished on 20 June, 1884. The revised Apocrypha did not appear until 1895. At
                     first the work of the revisers satisfied neither the advanced nor the conservative
                     party, but in course of time it has grown steadily in popularity.

                     LEWIS, Complete Hist. of the several Translations of the Holy Bible into English (London, 1739);
                     NEWCOME, Hist. View of Engl. Bible Translations (Dublin, 1792); BAGSTER, English Hexapla
                     (London, 1841); COTTON, List of Editions of the Bible (Oxford, 1851-2); ANDERSON, Annals of the
                     Engl. Bible (London, 1845); EDGAR, The Bibles of England (London, 1889); WESTCOTT, Hist. of
                     the Engl. Bible (London, 1868); HOARE, Evolution of the Engl. Bible (London, 1902); EADIE, Hist.
                     of the Engl. Bible (London, 1876); WESTCOTT AND HORT, New Testament (Cambridge, 1882),
                     introduction; GRAY, Where we got the Bible. Our debt to the Catholic Church (St. Louis, 1911);
                     POPE, Origin of the Douay Bible in Dublin Rev., CXLVII, 97; IDEM, The Origin of the Clementine
                     Vulgate in Amer. Eccl. Rev. (Oct. 1911); MAAS, The English Protestant Version of the Bible after
                     300 years in Eccles. Rev.(Nov., 1911); IDEM, The Revision of the Vulgate in Amer. Eccl. Rev.

                     ENGLISH VERSIONS: VIGOUROUX, Dict. de la Bible (Paris, 1895); CORNELY, Historica et crit.
                     introd. in libros sacros (Paris, 1885); GIGOT, Gen. Introd. to the Study of Holy Script. (New York,
                     1901); BRIGGS, Gen. Introd. to the Study of Holy Script. (New York, 1899); DAVIDSON, Treatise on
                     Bibl. Criticism (Boston, 1853); SAUL, Das Bibelstudium im Prediger Orden in Der Katholik, XXVII
                     (Mainz, Oct. and Nov., 1902); NESTLE, Urtext und Uebersetzungen der Bibel (Leipzig, 1897);
                     MARSH, Hist. of the Translations ... of the Scriptures from the earliest to the present age (London,
                     1912) SCHRÖDER, Thesaurus ling. armenicæ (Amsterdam, 1711); HYVERNAT, Etude sur les
                     versions coptes de la Bible in Revue biblique, III, IV, 6, 1; WHITTAKER, Hist. and Crit. Inquiry into
                     the Interpretations of the Hebrew Script. (London, 1819-20); SWETE, Introd. to the Old Testament in
                     Greek (Cambridge, 1900); HODY, De bibliorum textibus originalibus, versionibus græcis, et latina
                     Vulgata (Oxford, 1705); ZIEGLER, Die lateinische Bibelübersetzungen vor Hieronymus (Munich,
                     1879); SABATIER, Bibliorum sacr. latinæ vers. antiq. seu Vetus Itala (Reims, 1739-49); WISEMAN,
                     Two Letters on I John, v, 7, in Essays, I (London, 1853); RÖNSCH, Itala und Vulgata (Marburg,
                     1869); BURKITT, The Old Latin and Itala in Texts and Studies (Cambridge, 1896); KAULEN,
                     Gesch. der Vulgata (Mainz, 1868); BERGER, Hist. de la Vulgate (Paris, 1893); Revue biblique
                     (1893), 307, 544; (1903), 633; (1908), 159, treats of the Vulgate; LAGARDE, Probe einer neuen
                     Ausgabe der latein. Uebersetzungen des Alten Testaments (1870); BATIFFOL, Chrysostome et la
                     version gothique in Rev. biblique, VI (1899), 566-72; WESTCOTT AND HORT, New Test.
                     (Cambridge, 1882), introduction; KEHREIN, Gesch. der deutschen Bibelübersetzungen vor Luther
                     (Stuttgart, 1851); WALTHER, Die Bibelübersetzung im Mittelalter (Brunswick, 1889-92); HINLAPEN,
                     Hist. van der Nederl. Overzettinge des Bybels (Leyden, 1777); REID, Bibliotheca scoto-celtica
                     (Glasgow, 1833); The Bible in Every Land (London, 1860). (See also MANUSCRIPTS OF THE
                     BIBLE.)

                     A.J. MAAS
                     Transcribed by Dennis McCarthy
                     For my wife, Allyson Turco McCarthy

                                       The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XV
                                    Copyright © 1912 by Robert Appleton Company
                                    Online Edition Copyright © 1999 by Kevin Knight
                                 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1912. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor
                                 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York

The Catholic Encyclopedia:  newadvent.org